Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 4, 2006

Wound effects in the xylem of poplar: A UV microspectrophotometric study

Claus Frankenstein and Uwe Schmitt
From the journal

Abstract

Cell wall modifications in vessels and fibres of wound wood of Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx. formed after mechanical wounding have been examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV microspectrophotometry (in scanning and point measurement mode), mainly focusing on the lignin distribution. With this goal, wound xylem within lateral wound callusis was collected after response periods of up to 23 months. Vessels and fibres in wound xylem deviated from their usual axial orientation. Vessels within the wound xylem were smaller in diameter and shorter in length. Xylem fibres were also shorter and developed thicker walls, especially in tissue adjacent to the wound. Cell walls and cell corners of these fibres showed on average a higher lignin content and a modified lignin composition. These wall changes probably enhance disease resistance of the wound tissue. With increasing distance from the wound edge, the modifications diminished and finally disappeared.

:

Corresponding author. Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products/Institute for Wood Biology and Wood Protection, Leuschnerstrasse 91, D-21031 Hamburg, Germany

References

Anderson, N.A., Ostry, M.E., Anderson, G.W. (1979) Insect wounds as infection sites for Hypoxylon mammatum on trembling aspen. Phytopathology69:476–479. Search in Google Scholar

Arend, M., Fromm, J. (2004) Ultrastructural changes in cambial cell derivatives during xylem differentiation in poplar. Plant Biol.6:255–264. Search in Google Scholar

Bauch, J., Shigo, A.L., Starck, M. (1980) Wound effects in the xylem of Acer and Betula species. Holzforschung34:153–160. Search in Google Scholar

Bloomberg, W.J., Farris, S.H. (1963) Cytospora canker of poplars: Bark wounding in relation to canker development. Can. J. Bot.41:303–310. Search in Google Scholar

Brown, C.L., Sax, K. (1962) The influence of pressure on the differentiation of secondary tissues. Am. J. Bot.49:683–691. Search in Google Scholar

Brinkmann, K. (2002) Einfluß sich ändernder Umweltbedingungen auf Struktur- und Abwehrkomponenten in Buche und Pappel. Ph.D. thesis. Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen, Germany. Search in Google Scholar

Bucciarelli, B., Ostry, M.E., Fulcher, R.G., Anderson, N.A., Vance, C.P. (1999) Histochemical and microspectrophotometric analyses of early wound responses of resistant and susceptible Populus tremuloides inoculated with Entoleuca mammata (Hypoxylon mammatum). Can. J. Bot.77:548–555. Search in Google Scholar

Buntrock, M. (1989) Anatomische Untersuchungen über die Wundreaktion der Pappel. Diploma thesis. University of Hamburg, Germany. Search in Google Scholar

Déjardin, A., Leplé, J.C., Descauses, M.C., Costa, G., Pilate, G. (2004) Expressed sequence tags from poplar wood tissues – a comparative analysis from multiple libraries. Plant Biol.6:55–64. Search in Google Scholar

Donaldson, L.A. (1992) Lignin distribution during latewood formation in Pinus radiata D. Don. LAWA Bull.13:381–387. Search in Google Scholar

Donaldson, L.A. (2001) Lignification and lignin topochemistry – an ultrastructural view. Phytochemistry57:859–873. Search in Google Scholar

Donaldson, L.A., Hague, J., Snell, R. (2001) Lignin distribution in coppice poplar, linseed and wheat straw. Holzforschung55:379–385. Search in Google Scholar

Fergus, B.J., Goring, D.A.I. (1970a) The location of guaiacyl and syringyl lignins in birch xylem tissue. Holzforschung24:113–117. Search in Google Scholar

Fergus, B.J., Goring D.A.I. (1970b) The distribution of lignin in birch wood as determined by ultraviolet microscopy. Holzforschung24:118–124. Search in Google Scholar

Eckstein, D., Liese, W., Shigo, A.L. (1979) Relationship of wood structure to compartmentalization of discoloured wood in hybrid poplar. Can. J. For. Res.9:205–210. Search in Google Scholar

Fink, S. Pathological and Regenerative Plant Anatomy. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 1999. Search in Google Scholar

Frankenstein, C., Schmitt, U., Waitkus, W., Eckstein, D. (2005) Wound callus formation – a microscopic study on poplar (Populus tremula L.×Populus tremuloides Michx.). J. Appl. Bot.79:44–51. Search in Google Scholar

Frankenstein, C., Schmitt, U., Koch, G. (2006) Topochemical studies on modified lignin distribution in the xylem of poplar (Populus spp.) after wounding. Ann. Bot.97:195–204. Search in Google Scholar

Fukazawa, K. (1992) Ultraviolet microscopy. In: Methods in Lignin Chemistry. Eds. Lin, S.Y., Dence, C.W. Springer Verlag, Berlin. pp. 110–121. Search in Google Scholar

Grünwald, C., Ruel, K., Joselau, J.P., Fladung, M. (2001) Morphology, wood structure and cell wall composition of rolC transgenic and non-transformed aspen trees. Trees15:503–517. Search in Google Scholar

Grünwald, C., Ruel, K., Kim, Y.S., Schmitt, U. (2002a) On the cytochemistry of cell wall formation in poplar trees. Plant Biol.4:13–21. Search in Google Scholar

Grünwald, C., Ruel, K., Schmitt, U. (2002b) Differentiation of xylem cells in rolC transgenic aspen trees – a study of secondary cell wall development. Ann. For. Sci.59:679–685. Search in Google Scholar

Junghans, U., Langenfeld-Heyser, R., Polle, A., Teichmann, T. (2004) Effect of auxin transport inhibitors and ethylene on the wood anatomy of poplar. Plant Biol.6:22–29. Search in Google Scholar

Kaufert, F. (1937) Factors influencing the formation of periderm in aspen. Am. J. Bot.24:24–30. Search in Google Scholar

Koch, G., Grünwald, C. (2004) Application of UV microspectrophotometry for topochemical detection of lignin and phenolic extractives in wood fibre cell walls. In: Wood Fibre Cell Walls: Methods to Study their Formation, Structure and Properties. Eds. Schmitt, U., Ander, P., Barnett, J.R., Emons, A.M.C., Jeronimidis, G., Saranpää, P., Tschegg, S. Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala. pp. 119–130. Search in Google Scholar

Koch, G., Kleist, G. (2001) Application of scanning UV microspectrophotometry to localise lignins and phenolic extractives in plant cell walls. Holzforschung55:563–567. Search in Google Scholar

Liese, W., Dujesiefken, D. (1996) Wound reactions of trees. In: Forest Trees and Palms: Diseases and Control. Eds. Raychaudhuri, S.P., Maramorosch, K. IBH Publishing, Oxford. pp. 21–35. Search in Google Scholar

Lowerts, G., Wheeler, E.A., Kellison, R.C. (1986) Characteristics of wound-associated wood of yellow poplar (Lirodendron tulipifera L.). Wood Fiber Sci.18:537–552. Search in Google Scholar

Mulhern, W., Shortle, W., Shigo, A.L. (1979) Barrier zones in red maple: an optical and scanning microscope examination. For. Sci.25:311–316. Search in Google Scholar

Musha, Y., Goring, D.A.I. (1975) Distribution of syringyl and guaiacyl moieties in hardwoods as indicated by ultraviolet microscopy. Wood Sci. Technol.9:45–58. Search in Google Scholar

Novitskaya, L.L. (1998) Regeneration of bark and formation of abnormal birch wood. Trees13:74–79. Search in Google Scholar

Rademacher, P., Bauch, J., Shigo, A.L. (1984) Characteristics of xylem formed after wounding in Acer, Betula and Fagus. IAWA Bull.5:141–151. Search in Google Scholar

Saka, S., Goring, D.A.I. (1988) Localization of lignins in wood cell walls. In: Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of wood components. Ed. Higuchi T. Academic Press, New York. pp. 51–62. Search in Google Scholar

Scott, J.A.N., Procter, A.R., Fergus, B.J., Goring, D.A.I. (1969) The application of ultraviolet microscopy to the distribution of lignin in wood. Description and validity of the technique. Wood Sci. Technol.3:73–92. Search in Google Scholar

Sharon, E.M. (1973) Some histological features of Acer saccharum wood formed after wounding. Can. J. For. Res.3:83–89. Search in Google Scholar

Shigo, A.L., Marx, H.G. (1977) Compartmentalization of decay in trees. Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 405. USDA Forest Service. pp. 1–73. Search in Google Scholar

Shortle, W.C. (1979) Compartmentalization of decay in red maple and hybrid poplar trees. Phytopathology69:410–413. Search in Google Scholar

Soe, K. (1959) Anatomical studies of bark regeneration following scoring. J. Arnold Arboretum40:260–267. Search in Google Scholar

Spurr, A.R. (1969) A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J. Ultrastruc. Res.26:31–43. Search in Google Scholar

Sundberg, B., Uggla, C., Tuominen, H. (2000) Cambial growth and auxin gradients. In: Cell and Molecular Biology of Wood Formation. Eds. Savidge R.A., Barnett J.R., Napier R. BIOS Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp. 169–188. Search in Google Scholar

Takabe, K. (2002) Cell walls of woody plants: Autoradiography and ultraviolet microscopy. In: Wood Formation in Trees. Ed. Chaffey, N. Taylor & Francis, London. pp. 159–177. Search in Google Scholar

Terashima, N., Fukushima, K., Tsuchiya, S., Takabe, K. (1986) Heterogeneity in formation of lignin. VII. An autoradiographic study on the formation of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in poplar. J. Wood Chem. Technol.6:495–504. Search in Google Scholar

Terashima, N., Fukushima, K., Takabe, K. (1993) Comprehensive model of the lignified plant cell wall. In: Forage Cell Wall Structure and Digestibility. Eds. Jung, H.G., Buxton, D.R., Hatfield, R.D., Ralph, J. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. pp. 247–270. Search in Google Scholar

Trockenbrodt, M., Liese, W. (1991) Untersuchungen zur Wundreaktion in der Rinde von Populus tremula L. und Platanus×acerifolia (Ait.) Willd. Angew. Bot.65:279–287. Search in Google Scholar

Vance, C.P., Kirk, T.K., Sherwood, R.T. (1980) Lignification as a mechanism of disease resistance. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol.18:259–288. Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2006-12-04
Published in Print: 2006-11-01

©2006 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York