Clinical application of ultrasound began about fifty years ago. From one-dimensional A-mode, through two-dimensional real time and Doppler examinations, a new era in clinical ultrasonography then began in the late eighties. Development of computer technology enabled introduction of 3D ultrasonography into clinical practice. In obstetrics ultrasound revolutionized fetal follow-up, but it was as important for the detection of intracranial pathology during the neonatal period and Minfancy. Two-dimensional real time ultrasonography was an exciting method that changed our understanding of the prevalence and pathophysiology of brain pathology in premature and term infants. Will application of 3D ultrasonography bring any substantial improvement to neuroimaging diagnostics in the newborn period? This article attempts to find the answer to this question, despite the limitations set by the short period of application of 3D neurosonography in neonates. The advantages of 3D brain ultrasonography application in neonates are: quicker and observer independent data acquisition, the possibility of off-line data analysis, projection of 3D data on a 2D plane with volumetric, color and power Doppler studies. Unavailability of equipment is the main reason why 3D ultrasonography was performed in only half of the newborns in whom it was indicated. Cost of equipment prevents introduction of 3D as a standard diagnostic procedure in neonates, although its diagnostic value is indisputable.
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