Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (A) November 29, 2016

Zur phonologischen Rekonstruktion von „Schin“ (‹Š›)im frühen Akkadisch (sargonische bis altbabylonische Zeit)

Teil 1: Sargonisches Akkadisch

Vera Meyer-Laurin

Abstract

In Sargonic Akkadian the {Š} series of signs was used to express Proto-Semitic *t. Traditionally, the phonetic value /š/ ([ ʃ ]) was attributed to this series, despite the problems which this reconstruction entailed. The affricate theory according to which the Proto-Semitic sounds *s3,*z, * should no longer be interpreted as [s], [z], [s’] but rather as [ts], [dz], [ts’], forces us to reassess the entire reconstruction. This article will discuss the different proposals for reconstructing Proto-Semitic *t and show that its reconstruction as an affricate [t̪θ] can easily explain the orthographic evidence in Sargonic Akkadian while also presupposing only a few simple sound changes in modern Semitic languages. Accordingly, three dental/alveolar affricate sequences [ts] – [dz] – [ts’], [tɬ] (– [dɮ]) – [tɬ’], and [t̪θ] – [d̪ð] – [t̪θ’] must be postulated for Proto-Semitic. Similar to indicating deaffrication of *s3 ([ts] > [s]) in Old Babylonian by using {S} signs instead of {Z} signs, Sargonic Akkadian expressed the already realised deaffrication of *s2([tɬ] > [ɬ]) by using {S}-signs in contrast to {Z}-signs that were used for *ṣ́ ([tɬ’]). Likewise, the already realised deaffrication of * ([t̪θ] > [θ]) was expressed by using {Š}-signs in contrast to the use of {Z}-signs for * ([d̪ð]) and *ṯ̣ ([t̪θ’]). Thus, the phonetic value [θ] has to be reconstructed for the {Š} series in Sargonic Akkadian.

Danksagung

Professor Rainer M. Voigt danke ich für die aufmerksame Durchsicht und anregende Besprechung des Manuskripts. Alle Fehler und Ungenauigkeiten sind selbstverständlich mir allein zuzuschreiben. Mein Dank geht ferner an die Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung, die mir durch ihre mehrjährige Förderung die Forschung zu Schrift- und Lautsystem des Sumerischen und frühen Akkadisch am vormaligen Institut für Vorderasiatische Archäologie und Altorientalische Philologie (jetzt: Institut für Archäologische Wissenschaften, Abteilung Vorderasiatische Archäologie) der Universität Bern bei Professor Pascal Attinger ermöglicht hat.

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Online erschienen: 2016-11-29
Erschienen im Druck: 2016-12-1

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