Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (A) July 7, 2017

Parallel Hurrian and Hittite šumma izbu Omens from Hattuša and Corresponding Akkadian Omens

Yoram Cohen


This article discusses the remains of the šumma izbu omen series from Hattuša. It will identify two previously misidentified Hurrian fragments as belonging to the omen series and demonstrate that they are parallel to Hittite šumma izbu omens found at Hattuša and Akkadian šumma izbu omens from elsewhere.


Research for this paper was supported by an Israel Science Foundation Grant (no. 241/15; ‘The Production and Dissemination of Scholarly and School Textual Materials during the Late Bronze Age: An Integrated Research Project’; together with Prof. Yuval Goren, Ben Gurion University of the Negev). Joost Hazenbos, Nicla De Zorzi and Mauro Giorgieri are to be sincerely thanked for their generous advice and comments. I have greatly benefited from the presentation “Hurrian Body Parts” by Mauro Giorgieri (23/02/2017) held at the Seminar “The Individual and his Body in the Ancient Mediterranean Basin”, organized by Alice Mouton (CNRS – Ivry-sur-Seine).


Cohen, Y. (2007): Akkadian Omens from Hattuša and Emar: The šumma immeru and šumma ālu Omens, ZA 97, 233–251.Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, Y. (2015): Review of A. De Vos, Die Lebermodelle aus Boğazköy (StBoT Beih. 5), Wiesbaden 2013, ZA 105, 121–126.Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, Y. (2016): Sheep Anatomical Terminology in the šumma immeru Omen Series and Additional Texts. In: J. Fincke (ed.), Divination as Science: A Workshop Conducted during the 60th Recontre Assyriologique Internationale, Warsaw 2014, Winona Lake, 79–92.Search in Google Scholar

Dardano, P. (2014): Das hethitische Partizip – eine Frage der Diathese? In: P. Taracha (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Hittitology, Warsaw, 5–9 September 2011, Warsaw, 236–262.Search in Google Scholar

de Martino, S. (1992): Die mantischen Texte (ChS 1/7), Rome.Search in Google Scholar

de Martino, S. (2010): Hittite Oracles on the Behavior of the Sacrificial Ram at the Time of Its Slaughter. In: J. Klinger et al. (ed.), Investigationes Anatolicae: Gedenkschrift für Erich Neu (StBoT 52), Wiesbaden, 61–64.Search in Google Scholar

De Vos, A. (2013): Die Lebermodelle aus Boğazköy (StBoT, Beih. 5), Wiesbaden.Search in Google Scholar

De Zorzi, N. (2011): The Omen Series šumma izbu: Internal Structure and Hermeneutic Strategies, Kaskal 8, 43–75.Search in Google Scholar

De Zorzi, N. (2014): La serie teratomantica Šumma Izbu: testo, tradizione, orizzonti culturali (HANEM 15), Padova.Search in Google Scholar

George, A. R. (2013): Babylonian Divinatory Texts Chiefly in the Schøyen Collection (CUSAS 18), Bethesda.Search in Google Scholar

Giorgieri, M. (1998): Die erste Beschwörung der 8. Tafel des Šalašu-Rituals, SCCNH 9, 71–86.Search in Google Scholar

Giorgieri, M. (2001): Die hurritische Fassung des Ullikummi-Lieds und ihre hethitische Parallele. In: G. Wilhelm (ed.), Akten des IV. Internationalen Kongresses für Hethitologie, Würzburg, 4.–8. Oktober 1999 (StBoT 45), Wiesbaden, 134–155. Search in Google Scholar

Güterbock, H. G. (1988): Bilingual Moon Omens from Bogazköy. In: E. Leichty et al. (ed.), A Scientific Humanist: Studies in Memory of Abraham Sachs, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 161–173.Search in Google Scholar

Haas, V. (2008): Hethitische Orakel, Vorzeichen und Abwehrstrategien, Berlin – New York.Search in Google Scholar

Haas, V./I. Wegner (1988): Die Rituale der Beschwörerinnen SALŠU.GI (ChS 1/5), Rome.Search in Google Scholar

Klinger, J. (2001): Die hurritische Tradition in Hattuša und das Corpus hurritischer Texte. In: T. Richter et al. (ed.), Kulturgeschichten: Altorientalistische Studien für Volkert Haas zum 65. Geburtstag, Saarbrücken, 197–208.Search in Google Scholar

Leichty, E. (1970): The Omen Series Šumma Izbu (TCS 4), Locust Valley (N.Y.).Search in Google Scholar

Neu, E. (1996): Das hurritische Epos der Freilassung 1: Untersuchungen zu einem hurritisch-hethitischen Textensemble aus Ḫattuša (StBoT 32), Wiesbaden.Search in Google Scholar

Richter, T. (2012): Bibliographisches Glossar des Hurritischen, Wiesbaden.Search in Google Scholar

Riemschneider, K. K. (1970): Babylonische Geburtsomina in hethitischer Übersetzung (StBoT 9), Wiesbaden.Search in Google Scholar

Riemschneider, K. K. (2004): Die akkadischen und hethitischen Omentexte aus Boğazköy (DBH 12), Dresden.Search in Google Scholar

Rutz, M. (2013): Bodies of Knowledge in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Diviners of Late Bronze Age Emar and their Tablet Collection (AMD 9), Leiden.Search in Google Scholar

Salvini, M. (1977): Sui testi mitologici in lingua hurrica, SMEA 18, 73–91.Search in Google Scholar

Salvini, M. (1988): Die hurritischen Überlieferungen des Gilgameš-Epos und der Kešši-Erzählung. In: V. Haas (ed.), Hurriter und Hurritisch (Xenia 21), Konstanz, 157–172.Search in Google Scholar

Salvini M. (1996): The Ḫabiru Prism of King Tunip-Teššub of Tikunani (Documenta Asiana 3), Rome.Search in Google Scholar

Salvini, M. (2015): Les textes hourrites de Meskéné/Emar (AnOr. 57), Rome.Search in Google Scholar

Wegner, I. (2007): Hurritisch: Eine Einführung. 2., überarbeitete Auflage, Wiesbaden.Search in Google Scholar

Wilhelm, G. (2001): Das hurritisch-hethitische “Lied der Freilassung”. In: O. Kaiser (ed.), TUAT Ergänzungslieferung, Gütersloh, 82–91.Search in Google Scholar

Wilhelm, G. (2010): Ein Fragment mit hurritischen Gallenomina und der Beginn der hurritischen Überlieferung in Ḫattuša. In: J. Becker et al. (ed.), Kulturlandschaft Syrian: Zentrum und Peripherie. Festschrift für Jan-Waalke Meyer (AOAT 371), Münster, 623–636.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2017-7-7
Published in Print: 2017-7-6

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston