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Hartapu and the Land of Maša

A New Look at the KIZILDAĞ-KARADAĞ Group

Rostislav Oreshko


The paper presents a re-interpretation of two longer Hieroglyphic-Luwian inscriptions from the group attributed to king Hartapu (KIZILDAĞ 4, § 2 and KARADAĞ 1). It is argued that this king should be identified as a king of Maša rather of Ḫatti or Tarḫundašša, which, in view of the probable dating of his monuments to 12th–11th centuries BC, has important implications for the history of Anatolia after the fall of the Hittite Empire. The new attribution of the inscriptions also allows the old controversy concerning the dating of the relief of the king on the so-called ‘Throne’ to be reconsidered. Observations on the other monument of Hartapu, the ‘stepped altar’, support the connection of the KIZILDAĞ-KARADAĞ group with a foreign (non-Hittite and non-Luwian) tradition, yielding insight into the question of ethno-linguistic identity of Maša.


I express my thanks to Craig Melchert and Ilya Yakubovich, discussions with whom greatly improved the structure and language of the paper. I also thank Zsolt Simon for a number of valuable comments and suggestions, as well as Lynn Roller for smoothing the language of an earlier version of the paper. The responsibility for all its faults rests, of course, with me alone.


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Published Online: 2017-7-7
Published in Print: 2017-7-6

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