Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 10, 2017

Laser interference patterning methods: Possibilities for high-throughput fabrication of periodic surface patterns

Andrés Fabián Lasagni


Fabrication of two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) structures in the micro- and nano-range allows a new degree of freedom to the design of materials by tailoring desired material properties and, thus, obtaining a superior functionality. Such complex designs are only possible using novel fabrication techniques with high resolution, even in the nanoscale range. Starting from a simple concept, transferring the shape of an interference pattern directly to the surface of a material, laser interferometric processing methods have been continuously developed. These methods enable the fabrication of repetitive periodic arrays and microstructures by irradiation of the sample surface with coherent beams of light. This article describes the capabilities of laser interference lithographic methods for the treatment of both photoresists and solid materials. Theoretical calculations are used to calculate the intensity distributions of patterns that can be realized by changing the number of interfering laser beams, their polarization, intensity and phase. Finally, different processing systems and configurations are described and, thus, demonstrating the possibility for the fast and precise tailoring of material surface microstructures and topographies on industrial relevant scales as well as several application cases for both methods.


The work of A.F.L. was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG), Excellence Initiative by the German federal and state governments to promote top-level research at German universities (Grant no. F-003661-553-41A-1132104). A.F.L. also acknowledges the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) for financial support (Verbundförderprojekt ‘Laser Interference High Speed Surface Functionalization’, FKZ 13N13113). This work was also partially supported by the Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft under Grant No. Attract 692174.


[1] E. Favret and N. Fuentes, in ‘Functional Properties of Bio-Inspired Surfaces: Characterization and Technological Applications’, (World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 2009).10.1142/7109Search in Google Scholar

[2] A. F. Lasagni, T. Kunze, M. Bieda, D. Günther, A. Gärtner, et al., Proc. SPIE 9735, 973515 (2016).Search in Google Scholar

[3] A. F. Lasagni and B. S. Menéndez-Ormaza, Adv. Eng. Mater. 12, 54–60 (2010).10.1002/adem.200900221Search in Google Scholar

[4] J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Z. Ma, J. Choi and B.-K. Ju, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14, 1521–1532 (2014).10.1166/jnn.2014.9199Search in Google Scholar

[5] A. Lasagni and F. Mücklich, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 32–37 (2005).10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.01.063Search in Google Scholar

[6] A. Lasagni and F. Mücklich, Applied Surf. Sci. 240, 214–221 (2005).10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.06.143Search in Google Scholar

[7] F. Yu, F. Muecklich, P. Li, H. Shen, S. Mathur, et al., Biomacromolecules 6, 1160–1167 (2005).10.1021/bm049324wSearch in Google Scholar

[8] A. Rosenkranz, L. Reinert, C. Gachot and F. Mücklich, Wear 318, 49–61 (2014).10.1016/j.wear.2014.06.016Search in Google Scholar

[9] A. Aktag, S. Michalski, L. Yue, R. D. Kirby and S. H. Liou, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093901 (2006).10.1063/1.2191747Search in Google Scholar

[10] L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, et al., Carbon 50, 1667–1673 (2012).10.1016/j.carbon.2011.12.011Search in Google Scholar

[11] C. Nebel, S. Christiansen, H. P. Strunk, B. Dahlheimer, U. Karrer, et al., Phys. Status Solidi (A) 166, 667–674 (1998).10.1002/(SICI)1521-396X(199804)166:2<667::AID-PSSA667>3.0.CO;2-YSearch in Google Scholar

[12] G. Aichmayr, D. Toet, M. Mulato, P. V. Santos, A. Spangenberg, et al., J. Non Cryst. Solids 227, 921–924 (1998).10.1016/S0022-3093(98)00213-0Search in Google Scholar

[13] M. K. Kelly, J. Rogg, C. E. Nebel, M. Stutzmann and S. Kátai, Phys. Status Solidi (A) 166, 651–657 (1998).10.1002/(SICI)1521-396X(199804)166:2<651::AID-PSSA651>3.0.CO;2-PSearch in Google Scholar

[14] F. Muecklich, A. F. Lasagni, C. Daniel, Intermet. 13, 437–442 (2005).10.1016/j.intermet.2004.07.005Search in Google Scholar

[15] A. F. Lasagni, F. Muecklich, M. R. Nejati and R. Clasen, Adv. Eng. Mater. 8, 580–584 (2006).10.1002/adem.200500261Search in Google Scholar

[16] M. Bieda, C. Schmädicke, T. Roch and A. F. Lasagni, Adv. Eng. Mater. 17, 102–108 (2015).10.1002/adem.201400007Search in Google Scholar

[17] A. F. Lasagni, C. Gachot, K. E. Trinh, M. Hans, A. Rosenkranz, et al., Proc. of SPIE 10092, 1009211-1-11 (2017).Search in Google Scholar

[18] M. Ellman, A. Rodríguez, N. Pérez, M. Echeverria, Y. K. Verevkin, et al., Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5537–5541 (2009).10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.07.201Search in Google Scholar

[19] A. Rodriguez, M. Echeverría, M. Ellman, N. Perez, Y. K. Verevkin, et al., Microelectron. Eng. 86, 937–940 (2009).10.1016/j.mee.2008.12.043Search in Google Scholar

[20] Q. Xie, M. H. Hong, H. L. Tan, G. X. Chen, L. P. Shi, et al., J. Alloys Compd. 449, 261–264 (2008).10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.02.115Search in Google Scholar

[21] M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).10.1038/35003523Search in Google Scholar

[22] A. D. Campo and E. Arzt, Chem. Rev. 108, 911 (2008).10.1021/cr050018ySearch in Google Scholar

[23] K. Ogai, Y. Kimura, R. Shimizu, J. Fujita and S. Matsui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1560 (1995).10.1063/1.113646Search in Google Scholar

[24] S. Fujita, S. Maruno, H. Watanabe, Y. Kusumi and M. Ichikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2754 (1995).10.1063/1.113698Search in Google Scholar

[25] L. Cheng, R. Lu and H. Lipson, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 568–580 (2009).Search in Google Scholar

[26] H. van Wolferen and L. Abelmann, in ‘Lithography, Principles, Processes and Materials’, (Nova Science Publishers Inc, New York, 2011), ISBN: 978-1-61761-837-6.Search in Google Scholar

[27] J. Choi, M. H. Chung, K. Y. Dong, E. M. Park, D. J. Ham, et al., J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 778 (2011).10.1166/jnn.2011.3281Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[28] M. Hong, L. S. Tan, B. Lukyanchuk, L. Shi and T. Chong, in SPIE News room. (2016). doi: 10.1117/2.1200905.1594.10.1117/2.1200905.1594Search in Google Scholar

[29] A. F. Lasagni, D. Yuan, P. Shao and S. Das, Adv. Eng. Mater. 11, B20–B24 (2009).10.1002/adem.200800295Search in Google Scholar

[30] A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, et al., Opt. Eng. 43, 2525–2533 (2004).10.1117/1.1803552Search in Google Scholar

[31] C. Demuth, M. Bieda, A. Lasagni, A. Mahrle, A. Wetzig, et al., J. Mater. Process. Technol. 212, 689–699 (2012).10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.10.023Search in Google Scholar

[32] M. Duarte, A. Lasagni, R. Giovanelli, J. Narciso, E. Louis, et al., Adv. Eng. Mater. 10, 554–558 (2008).10.1002/adem.200700321Search in Google Scholar

[33] B. Voisiat, M. Gedvilas, S. Indrišiunas and G. Raciukaitis, Phys. Procedia 12, 116–124 (2011).10.1016/j.phpro.2011.03.113Search in Google Scholar

[34] A. Lasagni and F. Lasagni, in ‘New Trends for Two and Three Dimensional Structures, Advanced Structured Materials Series’, (Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2011).Search in Google Scholar

[35] A. A. Maznev, T. F. Crimmins and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1378–1380 (1998).10.1364/OL.23.001378Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[36] A. Lasagni, P. Shao, J. L. Hendricks, C. M. Shaw, D. Yuan, et al., Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 1708–1713 (2010).10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.09.099Search in Google Scholar

[37] W. Barthlott and C. Neinhuis, Planta 202, 1 (1997).10.1007/s004250050096Search in Google Scholar

[38] J. Nickerl, M. Tsurkan, R. Hensel, C. Neinhuis and C. Werner, J. R. Soc. Interface 11, 20140619 (2014).10.1098/rsif.2014.0619Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[39] Y. Nakata, Adv. Opt. Technol. 5, 29–38 (2015).Search in Google Scholar

[40] A. F. Lasagni and E. Beyer, in ‘Laser Surface Engineering’, 1st ed., Ed. By Lawrence and Waugh (Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge), ISBN 978-17824-2074-3.Search in Google Scholar

[41] S. Kuiper, H. van Wolferen, C. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, G. Krijnen, et al., J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 33–37 (2001).10.1088/0960-1317/11/1/306Search in Google Scholar

[42] V. Lang, T. Roch and A. F. Lasagni, Adv. Eng. Mater. 18, 1342–1348 (2016).10.1002/adem.201600173Search in Google Scholar

[43] M. Bieda, M. Siebold and A. F. Lasagni, Appl. Surf. Sci. 387, 175–182 (2016).10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.06.100Search in Google Scholar

[44] N. Unno and J. Taniguchi, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2149 (2011).10.1016/j.mee.2011.02.006Search in Google Scholar

[45] H. Schift, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 458 (2008).10.1116/1.2890972Search in Google Scholar

[46] J. Taniguchi and M. Aratani, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 27, 2841 (2009).10.1116/1.3237141Search in Google Scholar

[47] A. F. Lasagni, Proc. of 1. OptecNet Jahrestagung, OpTech-Net e.V., Duisburg (2017).Search in Google Scholar

[48] H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, et al., Nat. Photonics 6, 617 (2012).10.1038/nphoton.2012.160Search in Google Scholar

[49] H. Yang, D. Zhao, J.-H. Seo, S. Chuwongin, S. Kim, et al., IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 476 (2012).10.1109/LPT.2011.2181351Search in Google Scholar

[50] K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet and E. F. Wassermann, Nanotechnology 11, 161 (2000).10.1088/0957-4484/11/3/304Search in Google Scholar

[51] H. S. Lee, Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, S. H. Kim and K. D. Lee, Opt. Express 15, 15457 (2007).10.1364/OE.15.015457Search in Google Scholar

[52] R. W. Sabnis, Displays 20, 119 (1999).10.1016/S0141-9382(99)00013-XSearch in Google Scholar

[53] J. de Boor, N. Geyer, J. V. Wittemann, U. Gösele and V. Schmidt, Nanotechnology 21, 095302 (2010).10.1088/0957-4484/21/9/095302Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[54] C. Gachot, A. Rosenkranz, L. Reinert, E. Ramos-Moore, N. Souza, et al., Tribol. Lett. 49, 193–202 (2013).10.1007/s11249-012-0057-ySearch in Google Scholar

[55] A. Rosenkranz, T. Heib, C. Gachot and F. Muecklich, Wear 334, 1–12 (2015).10.1016/j.wear.2015.04.006Search in Google Scholar

[56] K. E. Trinh, F. Muecklich and E. Ramos-Moore, in ‘Proc. 27th Int. Conf. Electr. Contacts’, pp. 243–248 (2014).Search in Google Scholar

[57] A. F. Lasagni and D. Guenther, in ‘Anwenderforum Funktionale Implantate und Implantatoberflächen’, (2015).Search in Google Scholar

[58] A. Rosenkranz, M. Hans, C. Gachot, A. Thome, S. Bonk, et al., Lubricants 4, 2 (2016).10.3390/lubricants4010002Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-3-3
Accepted: 2017-4-3
Published Online: 2017-5-10
Published in Print: 2017-6-27

©2017 THOSS Media & De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston

Scroll Up Arrow