This paper reports the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) observed on the ablated surface of bulk As2S3 chalcogenide glasses produced after irradiation by a focused beam of femtosecond Ti:sapphire (fs)-laser (1 kHz, 100 fs, 800 nm). By controlling the irradiation condition of fs-laser, high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL) ripples parallel to polarisation of the incident light are formed. Nanovoids with an average diameter of ~300 nm and depth of 200 nm also appear between the ripples. Furthermore, we show a transition from the HSFL features toward the formation of low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) with an intermediated complex structure of ripples, which are oriented simultaneously parallel and perpendicular to the polarisation of the incident light that we call cross-superposed LIPSSs.
About the authors
Dr. Sandra Helena Messaddeq is a senior scientist at COPL-Laval University (Canada) since 2010. She obtained her Ph.D. in Materials Science Engineering from the Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 2000. Her research is focused on amorphous materials (thin film, glasses and sol-gel) and their interactions with laser irradiation to produce photonic devices and multifunctional materials including optical memory devices, 3D transparent projection screens and IR micro-lens arrays. She is devoted to understand their structural physical changes using Raman spectroscopy.
Antoine Dumont is currently a doctorate student in the group of Professor Zheng-Hong Lu at the University of Toronto, working on organic light-emitting diodes and perovskite quantum dots. He received his M.Sc. degree in Physics in 2016 from York University, supported by NSERC and OGS scholarships. He also teaches Physics to students preparing for the MCAT with the company The Princeton Review.
Alexandre Douaud is presently working on his Ph.D. in the group of Pr. Younès Messaddeq at the Centre d’Optique, Photonique et Laser, at Université Laval (Québec, Canada). His work focuses on the phenomena that emerge from the interaction of laser with chalcogenide glasses (thin films). He previously received his Master’s degree in Chemistry at Université de Rennes (France) in 2014.
Dr. Mohammed El-Amraoui received his Master’s degree in Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Materials at Université de Montpellier (France) in 2007, and his Ph.D. in Physics at Université de Bourgogne, 2010. He is a Research Scientist at Centre d’Optique, Photonique et Laser (COPL) of Université Laval since 2011. His research interests include chalcogenide optical fibres with very low attenuation for lasers in the 3- to 5- and 8- to 14-μm windows, development of MOFs with controllable dispersion and development of compact supercontinuum sources based on chalcogenide and tellurite MOFs.
Younès Messaddeq holds the Canadian Excellence Research Chair in Photonic Innovations since 2010 at the Center for Optics, Photonics and Laser, at Université Laval (Quebec City). He is currently a Full Professor at the Department of Physics, Physics Engineering and Optics at Université Laval. He is also the director of the Joint International Research Unit Quebec-Brazil Photonics in collaboration with the University of Sao Paulo State (UNESP, Brazil); the director of the Laboratoire International Associé LUMAQ (Lumière Matière France Quebec) in collaboration with the Université de Bordeaux and the CNRS in France, the INRS and Université Laval in Canada; and the director of the Sentinel North Technological Platform at Université Laval since 2016. Before joining Université Laval, he was a professor and research group leader at the Institute of Chemistry of Araraquara (UNESP, Brazil), visiting professor at the IFSC, Brazil, and at the University of Münster, Germany. He has also served as a visiting researcher and fellow at the NIRIM in Japan. He has published over 450 scientific papers and has filed 33 patents.
This research was supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), Canada Excellence Research Chairs (CERC on Enabling Photonic Innovations for Information and Communication), Ministère du Développement Économique, de l’Innovation et de l’Exportation (MESIE), Fonds de Recherche du Québec – Nature et technologies (FQRNT).
Sandra Helena Messaddeq is the researcher responsible for the research related to the interaction of femtosecond-laser with chalcogenide glasses. Antoine Dumont is responsible for AFM and SEM characterisation. Alexandre Douaud performed the sample irradiation with femtosecond laser and set up the system. Mohammed El-Amraoui prepared the chalcogenide glass samples. Younès Messaddeq is the head of the Photonic Innovations Research group.
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