Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 25, 2015

Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular evidence

Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León, Carlos D. Pinacho-Pinacho, Berenit Mendoza-Garfias and Martin García-Varela
From the journal Acta Parasitologica


Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. is described from the urinary bladder of the Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus balsanus Ahl (Profundulidae) in Rio Pueblo Viejo and Rio Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico. The new species is described based on evidence gathered from morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum Braun 1899 are the presence of spines on the entire body surface and having a ventral sucker almost half the size of oral sucker. The new species possess a large number of dome-like papillae on the body surface with scattered distribution along the hindbody, and these papillae are characteristically spinulated. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. most closely resembles P. inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Perez-Ponce de Leon and Rubio- Godoy, 2013, a parasite of the twospot livebearer Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) from Veracruz, in the Atlantic slope of Mexico. In addition to the new species, specimens of P. inecoli were also found parasitising the urinary bladder of cyprinodontiforms such as the Mexican molly Poecilia sphenops Valencienes in a pond at Santa Maria Coyotepec, and in Profundulus sp. in Rio Templo, both in Oaxaca, and in the Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel) in Rio San Juan, as well as in Profundulus punctatus (Gunter) from Rio Nueva Francia, both in Chiapas. The distribution and host range of P. inecoli is extended to freshwaters of the Pacific slope of Mexico, and to other cyprynodontiforms.


Campbell R.A. 2008. Family Gorgoderidae Looss, 1899. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, Vol. 3. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 191-214Search in Google Scholar

Cribb T.H. 1987. A new species of Phyllodistomum (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) from Australian and New Zealand freshwater fishes with notes on the taxonomy of Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899. Journal of Natural History, 21, 1525-1538Search in Google Scholar

Cutmore S.C., Miller T.L., Curran S.S., Bennett M.B., Cribb T.H. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of the Gorgoderidae (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda), including the proposal of a new subfamily (Degeneriinae n. subfam.). Parasitology Research, 112, 3063-3074. in Google Scholar

Helt J., Janovy J., Jr, Ubelaker J. 2003. Phyllodistomum funduli n. sp. (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae) from Fundulus sciadicus Cope from Cedar Creek in western Nebraska. Journal of Parasitology, 89, 346-350Search in Google Scholar

Ho H.W., Bray R.A., Cutmore S.C., Ward S., Cribb T.H. 2014. Two new species of Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899 (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae Looss, 1899) from Great Barrier Reef fishes. Zootaxa, 3779, 551-562Search in Google Scholar

Huelsenbeck J.P., Ronquist F. 2001. MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Biometrics, 17, 754-755Search in Google Scholar

Maddison D.R., Maddison W.P. 2002. MacClade 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts Mendoza-Garfias B., Perez-Ponce de Leon G. 2005. Phyllodistomum centropomi sp. n. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), a parasite of the fat snook, Centropomus parallelus (Osteichthyes: Centropomidae), in the Papaloapan River at Tlacotalpan, Veracruz State, Mexico. Zootaxa, 1056, 43-51Search in Google Scholar

Parker J.H., Curran S.S., Overstreet R., Tkach V.V. 2010. Examination of Homalometron elongatum Manter, 1947 and description of a new congener from Eucinostomus currani Zahuranec, 1980 in the Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica. Comp Parasitol 77, 154-163Search in Google Scholar

Perez-Ponce de Leon G., Choudhury A. 2010. Parasites inventories and DNA-based taxonomy: lessons from helminths of freshwater fishes in a megadiverse country. Journal of Parasitology, 96, 236-244. DOI: 10.1645/GE-2239.1Search in Google Scholar

Perez-Ponce de Leon G., Razo-Mendivil U., Rosas-Valdez R., Mendoza- Garfias B., Mejia-Madrid. H. 2008. Description of a new species of Crassicutis Manter, 19636, parasite of Cichlasoma beani Jordan (Osteichthyes:Cichlidae) in Mexico, based on morphology and sequences of the ITS1 and 28S ribosomal RNA genes. Journal of Parasitology 94, 257-263Search in Google Scholar

Petkevičiūtė R., Stunžėnas V., Stanevičiūtė G. Zhokhov A.E 2014. European Phyllodistomum (Digenea, Gorgoderidae) and phylogenetic affinities of Cercaria duplicata based on rDNA and karyotypes. Zoologica Scripta, 44, 1-12. DOI: 10.1111/ zsc.12080Search in Google Scholar

Posada D. 2008. jModelTest: Phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25, 1253-1256Search in Google Scholar

Rambaut A. 2006 FigTree v1.3.1. Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Rambaut A., Drummond A.J. 2007. Tracer v1.4, Available from Search in Google Scholar

Razo-Mendivil U., Perez-Ponce de Leon G., Rubio-Godoy M. 2013). Integrative taxonomy identifies a new species of Phyllodistomum (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), in Central Veracruz, Mexico. Parasitology Research, 112, 4137-4150. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-013-3605-y Search in Google Scholar

Razo-Mendivil U., Mendoza-Garfias B., Perez-Ponce de Leon G., Rubio-Godoy, M. 2014. A new species of Auriculostoma (Digenea: Allocreadiidae) in the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) from central Veracruz, Mexico, described using morphological and molecular data. Journal of Parasitology 100: 331-337. DOI: 10.1645/13-352.1Search in Google Scholar

Rosas-Valdez R., Choudhury A., Perez-Ponce de Leon G. 2011. Molecular prospecting for cryptic species in Phyllodistomum lacustri (Platyhelminthes, Gorgoderidae). Zoologica Scripta, 40, 296-305. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00472.x Stamatakis A. 2006. Raxml-vi-hpc: Maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics, 22, 2688-2690Search in Google Scholar

Tamura K., Peterson D., Peterson N., Stecher G., Nei M., Kumar S. 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731-2739. DOIi: 10.1093/molbev/msr121Search in Google Scholar

Thompson J.D., Higgins H.G., Gibson T.J. 1994. CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple secuence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nuclei Acids Research 22, 4673-4680Search in Google Scholar

Urabe M., Ishibashi R., Uehara K. 2014. The life cycle and molecular phylogeny of a gorgoderid trematode recorded from the mussel Nodularia douglasiae in the Yodo River, Japan, Parasitology International (in press), j.parint.2014.09.003 Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2014-10-9
Revised: 2014-12-19
Accepted: 2015-1-16
Published Online: 2015-3-25
Published in Print: 2015-6-1

© 2015 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS