Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 16, 2015

Comparison of pathogens infection level in Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) beetles sampled in pheromone traps and at place of overwintering

Karolina Lukášová and Jaroslav Holuša
From the journal Acta Parasitologica


The importance of pathogens in the population dynamics of Ips typographus remains a subject of ongoing debate. The main objective of our experiment was to compare the pathogen infection levels of individuals overwintering in bark with the levels of individuals from the same population captured with pheromone traps and thereby to determine primary answers as to whether it can be confirmed that pathogenic organisms affect the flight ability of bark beetles or their ability to leave their places of overwintering. A total of 402 I. typographus individuals were analyzed at a study location under limited management. Three pathogens were confirmed to be present: the gregarine Gregarina typographi, the virus ItEPV, and the microsporidium Nosema typographi. Infection levels of Gregarina typographi and ItEPV were the same in beetles collected at places of overwintering and in those beetles collected in pheromone traps within the immediate vicinity. As these pathogens infect the host’s intestine, the tendency to leave the places of overwintering is apparently not diminished. A similar analysis and comparison of pathogens located in the fat body might bring different results, as our study only detected N. typographi in a single dissected adult spruce bark beetle.


Burjanadze M., Goginashvili N. 2009. Occurrence of pathogens and nematodes in the spruce bark beetles, Ips typographus (Col., Scolytidae) in Borjomi Gorge. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, 3, 145-150Search in Google Scholar

Christiansen E., Bakke A. 1988. The spruce bark beetle of Eurasia. In: (Ed. A.A. Berryman) Dynamics of forest insect populations. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, 480-50310.1007/978-1-4899-0789-9_23Search in Google Scholar

Duelli P., Zahradník P., Knížek M., Kalinová B. 1997. Migration in spruce bark beetles (Ips typographus L.) and the efficiency of pheromone traps. Journal of Applied Entomology, 121, 297-303. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.1997.tb01409.x 10.1111/j.1439-0418.1997.tb01409.xSearch in Google Scholar

Forster B. 1993. Development of the bark beetle situation in the Swiss storm-damage areas. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen, 144, 767-776Search in Google Scholar

Haidler B., Wegensteiner R., Weiser J. 2003. Occurrence of microsporidia and ther pathogens in associated living spruce bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in an Austrian forest. Insect Pathogens and Insect Parasitic Nematodes. IOBC wprs Bulletin, 26, 257-260Search in Google Scholar

Händel U., Wegensteiner R., Weiser J., Žižka Z. 2003. Occurrence of pathogens in associated living bark beetles (Col., Scolytidae) from different spruce stands in Austria. Journal of Pest Science, 76, 22-32. DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0280.2003.03007.x 10.1046/j.1439-0280.2003.03007.xSearch in Google Scholar

Hlásny T., Turčáni M. 2013. Persisting bark beetle outbreak indicates the unsustainability of secondary Norway spruce forests: case study from Central Europe. Annals of Forest Science, 70, 481-491. DOI 10.1007/s13595-013-0279-710.1007/s13595-013-0279-7Search in Google Scholar

Holuša J., Lukášová K., Wegensteiner R., Grodzki W., Pernek M., Weiser J. 2013. Pathogens of the bark beetle Ips cembrae: microsporidia and gregarines known from other Ips species. Journal of Applied Entomology, 137, 181-187. DOI: 10.1111/ j.1439-0418.2012.01717.x Holuša J., Weiser J., Žižka Z. 2009. Pathogens of the spruce bark beetles Ips typographus and Ips duplicatus. Central European Journal of Biology, 4, 567-573. DOI: 10.2478/s11535-009-0044-y Lukášová K., Holuša J. 2011. Gregarina typographi (Eugregarinorida: Gregarinidae) in the bark beetle Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): changes in infection level in the breeding system. Acta Protozoologica, 50, 311-318. DOI: 10.4467/16890027AP.11.028.0065Search in Google Scholar

Lukášová K., Holuša J. 2012. Patogeny lýkožroutů rodu Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): review. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 3, 230-240Search in Google Scholar

Lukášová K., Holuša J., Turčáni M. 2013. Pathogens of Ips amitinus: new species and comparison with Ips typographus. Journal of Applied Entomology, 137, 188-196. DOI: 10.1111/jen.1200010.1111/jen.12000Search in Google Scholar

Michalková V., Krascsenitsová E., Kozánek M. 2011. On the pathogens of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) in the Western Carpathians. Biologia, 67, 217-221. DOI: 10.2478/s11756-011-0154-710.2478/s11756-011-0154-7Search in Google Scholar

Nemec V., Zumr V., Stary P. 1993. Studies on the nutritional state and the response to aggregation pheromones in the bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) (Col., Scolytidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 116, 358-363. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.1993.tb01208.x 10.1111/j.1439-0418.1993.tb01208.xSearch in Google Scholar

Plašil P., Cudlín P. 2005. Population dynamics of eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus [L.]) in the area of National Nature Reserve Praděd in 1998-2001. Journal of Forest Science, 51, 359-370 10.17221/4571-JFSSearch in Google Scholar

Takov D., Pilarska D.,Wegensteiner R. 2010. List of protozoan and microsporidian pathogens of economically important bark beetle species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Europe. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 62, 201-209Search in Google Scholar

Wegensteiner R. 2004. Pathogens in bark beetles. In: (Eds. F. Lieutier, K.R. Day A. Battisti J.-C. Grégoire H.F. Evans) Bark and wood boring insects in living trees in Europe, Asynthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 291-31310.1007/978-1-4020-2241-8_12Search in Google Scholar

Wegensteiner R., Dedryver C.-A., Pierre J.-S. 2010. The comparative prevalence and demographic impact of two pathogens in swarming Ips typographus adults: a quantitative analysis of long term trapping data. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 12, 49-57. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2009.00449.x 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2009.00449.xSearch in Google Scholar

Wegensteiner R., Stradner A., Händel U. 2014. Occurrence of pathogens in Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and in other spruce bark beetles from the wilderness reserve Dürrenstein (Lower Austria). Biologia, 69, 92-100. DOI:10.2478/s11756-013-0286-z10.2478/s11756-013-0286-zSearch in Google Scholar

Wegensteiner R., Weiser J. 1996. Untersuchungen zum Auftreten von Pathogen by Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) aus einem Naturschutzgebiet in Schwartzwald (Baden-Württemberg). Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 69, 162-167. DOI: 10.1007/BF0190680810.1007/BF01906808Search in Google Scholar

Wegensteiner R., Weiser J. 2004. Annual variation of pathogen occurrence and pathogen prevalence in Ips typographus L. (Col, Scolytidae) from the BOKU University Forest Demonstration Centre. Journal of Pest Science, 77, 221-228. DOI: 10.1007/s10340-004-0056-310.1007/s10340-004-0056-3Search in Google Scholar

Weiser J., Pultar O., Žižka Z. 2000. Biological protection of forest against bark beetle outbreaks with poxvirus and other pathogens. IUAPPA, Section B, 12, 168-172Search in Google Scholar

Wermelinger B. 2004. Ecology and management of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus - a review of recent research. Forest Ecology and Management, 202, 67-82. DOI: 10.1016/ j.foreco.2004.07.01810.1016/j.foreco.2004.07.018Search in Google Scholar

Weslien J., Lindelöw A. 1990. Recapture of marked spruce bark beetles (Ips typographus) in pheromone traps using area-wide mass trapping. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 1786-1790. DOI: 10.1139/x90-23810.1139/x90-238Search in Google Scholar

Wichmann L., Ravn H.P. 2001. The spread of Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) attacks following heavy windthrow in Denmark, analysed using GIS. Forest Ecology and Management, 148, 31-39. DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00477-110.1016/S0378-1127(00)00477-1Search in Google Scholar

Yaman M., Baki H. 2010. The first record of Gregarina typographi Fuchs (Protista: Apicomplexa: Gregarinidae) from the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Parasitology, 34, 179-82. DOI: 10.5152/tpd. 2010.08Search in Google Scholar

Yaman M., Baki H. 2011. First record of Entomopoxvirus of Ips typographus (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) for Turkey. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 63, 199-202Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2014-11-10
Revised: 2015-2-9
Accepted: 2015-3-18
Published Online: 2015-6-16
Published in Print: 2015-9-1

© W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS