Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 18, 2017

New record of Steinernema arenarium (Artyukhovsky) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) from Ukraine and a note on its distribution

Yegor Yakovlev, Jiří Nermut, Vladimír Půža, Vitaliy A. Kharchenko and Zdeněk Mráček
From the journal Acta Parasitologica


During a survey of the biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Ukraine, a population of Steinernema arenarium, strain Ch, was recovered in the sensitive Chornobyl Exclusion Zone. In the present work, this strain was morphologically and molecularly characterised using light microscopy and the sequences of the ITS and D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA. In addition, we sequenced the ITS and D2-D3 regions of four populations of S. arenarium from a laboratory collection. Phylogenetic analyses were performed and the phylogenetic structure and geographic distribution of S. arenarium are discussed.


Maryna Shkvyria and Denis Vishnevskiy are thanked for providing the opportunity of field study and help with sampling. The research was supported by the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport in the programme Czech-Israeli Cooperative Scientific Research, project 8G15006.


Adams B.J., Fodor A., Köppenhöfer H.S., Stackebrandt E., Stock S.P., Klein M.G. 2006. Biodiversity and systematics of nematode–bacterium entomopathogens. Biological Control, 37, 32–49. 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.11.008Search in Google Scholar

Artyukhovsky A.K., Kozodoi E.M., Reid A.P., Spiridonov S.E. 1997. Redescription of Steinernema arenarium (Artyukhvsky, 1967) topotypes from Central Russia and a proposal for S. anomale (Kozodoi, 1984) as a junior synonym. Russian Journal of Nematology, 5, 31–37Search in Google Scholar

Emelianoff V., Le Brun N., Pagès S., Stock S.P., Tailliez P., Moulia C., Sicar M. 2008. Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria from Hèrault and Gard (Southern France). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 98, 211–217. 10.1016/j.jip.2008.01.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Garcia del Pino, F., Palomo, A. 1995. A new strain of Steinernema anomali (Kozodoi, 1984) from Spain. In: COST 819 – Ecology and Transmission Strategies of Entomopathogenic Nematodes, 3–5 June of 1994, 1995, Debrecen, Hungary, pp. 110–111Search in Google Scholar

Gradinarov D., Petrova E., Waeyenberge L., Karadjova O. 2011. First report of the enthomopathogenic nematode Steinernema arenarium (Steinernematidae: Rhabditida) in Bulgaria. Nematologia Mediterranea, 39, 47–52Search in Google Scholar

Hall T.A. 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41, 95–98Search in Google Scholar

Haran J., Roques A., Bernard A., Robinet C., Roux G. 2015. Altitudinal Barrier to the Spread of an Invasive Species: Could the Pyrenean Chain Slow the Natural Spread of the Pinewood Nematode? PLoS One, 10, 7, e0134126. 10.1371/journal.pone.0134126Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Hazir S., Stock S., Kaya H.K., Koppenhöfer A.M.,Keskin N. 2001. Developmental temperature effects on five geographic isolates of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 77, 4, 243–250. 10.1006/jipa.2001.5029Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Hominick W.M. 2002. Biogeography. In: (Ed. R. Gaugler) Entomopathogenic Nematology, CAB International, Wallingford, 115–14310.1079/9780851995670.0115Search in Google Scholar

Ivanova T.I., Danilov L.G., Ivakhnenko O.A. 2000. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes of the families Steinernematidae and Heterorabditidae in Russia and their morphological characteristics. Parasitologiia, 34, 4, 323–334. (In Russian)Search in Google Scholar

Kaya H.K., Stock 1997. Techniques in insect nematology. In: (Ed. L.A. Lacey) Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology, Academic Press, London, pp. 281–32410.1016/B978-012432555-5/50016-6Search in Google Scholar

Kharchenko V.A., Sigareva D.D., Galagan T., Olenenko V. 2012. Study of entomopathogenic nematodes from genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis in Ukraine. In: XIth European Multicolloquium Of Parasitology, 25th-29th July, 2012, Cluj-Napoca – Romania, pp. 506Search in Google Scholar

Kozodoi E.M. 1984. A new entomopathogenic nematode, Neoaplectana anomali s n. (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae) and observations on its biology. Zoologichesky zhurnal, 63, 1605–1609. (In Russian)Search in Google Scholar

Lavelle P., Decaëns T., Aubert M., Barot S., Blouin M., Bureau F., Margerie P., Mora P., Rossi J.-P. 2006. Soil invertebrates and ecosystem services. European Journal of Soil Biology, 42, 3– 1510.1016/j.ejsobi.2006.10.002Search in Google Scholar

Looss, A. 1901. The Sclerostomidae of Horses and Donkeys in Egypt. Records of the Egyptian Government School of Medicine, Cairo, 13, 27–138Search in Google Scholar

Mráček Z., Bečvář S., Kindlmann P., Jersáková J. 2005. Habitat preference for entomopathogenic nematodes, their insect hosts and new faunistic records for the Czech Republic. Biological Control, 34, 1, 27–3710.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.03.023Search in Google Scholar

Mráček Z., Půža V. , Nermut J. 2014. Steinernema poinari sp. n. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) a new entomopathogenic nematode from the Czech Republic. Zootaxa, 3760, 336–350. 10.11646/zootaxa.3760.3.2Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Nei M., Kumar S. (Eds) 2000. Molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, pp. 352Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen K.B. 2007. Methodology, morphology and identification. In: (Eds K.B. Nguyen, D.J. Hun) Entomopathogenic nematodes: Systematics, Phylogeny and Bacterial Symbionts Nematology Monographs and Perspectives 5, Brill, Leiden– Boston10.1163/ej.9789004152939.i-816Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen K.B., Hunt D.J. (Eds) 2007. Entomopathogenic nematodes: Systematics, Phylogeny and Bacterial symbionts. Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 81610.1163/ej.9789004152939.i-816Search in Google Scholar

Poinar Jr. G.O., Kozodoi E.M. 1988. Neoaplectana glaseri and N. anomali: sibling species or parallelism? Revue de Nématologie, 11, 1, 13–19Search in Google Scholar

Půža V. , Chundelová D., Nermut’ J., Žurovcová M., Mráček Z. 2015. Intra-individual variability of ITS regions in entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae: Nematoda): implications for their taxonomy. Biocontrol, 60, 4, 547–554. 10.1007/ s10526-015-9664-5Search in Google Scholar

Rubtsov I.A. 1978. Mermithids. Classification, significance, using. "Nauka", Leningrad, pp. 207. (In Russian)Search in Google Scholar

Rzhetsky A., Nei M. 1992. A Simple Method for Estimating and Testing Minimum-Evolution Trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 9, 945–967Search in Google Scholar

Saitou N., Nei M. 1987. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4, 406–425Search in Google Scholar

Seinhorst J.W. 1959. A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica, 4, 67–6910.1163/187529259X00381Search in Google Scholar

Spiridonov S.E., Reid A., Podrucka K., Subbotin S.A., Moens M. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Steinernema (Nematoda: Rhabditida) as inferred from analyses of sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA and morphological features. Nematology, 6, 547–56610.1163/1568541042665304Search in Google Scholar

Sturhan D., Liskova M. 1999. Occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in the Slovak Republic. Nematology, 1, 273–27710.1163/156854199508261Search in Google Scholar

Sturhan D., Mráček Z. 2002. The Steinernema glaseri group in Europe. In: Proceedings of the COST Action 850 meeting, WG3: "Long dauer juvenile phenotypes from Europe and Southern mediterranean regions", 4-6th April 2002, Budapest, HungarySearch in Google Scholar

Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A., Kumar S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 2725–2729. 10.1093/molbev/mst197Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Toepfer S., Gueldenzoph C., Ehlers R.-U., Kuhlmann U. 2005. Screening of entomopathogenic nematodes for virulence against the invasive western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Europe. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 95, 473–482. 10.1079/BER2005379Search in Google Scholar

Veremchuk G.V. 1969. A new species of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Neoaplectana (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). Parazitologiia, 3, 3, 249–252. (In Russian)Search in Google Scholar

Vrain T.C., Wakarchuk D.A., Levesque A.C., Hamilton R.I. 1992. Intraspecific rDNA restriction fragment lenght polymorphismis in the Xiphinema americanum group. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 15, 563–574Search in Google Scholar

Yakovlev Ye.B., Kharchenko V.A., Mráček Z. 2014. Findings of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae) in Nature Reserves in Ukraine. Vestnik zoologii, 48, 167–173. 10.2478/vzoo-2014-0023Search in Google Scholar

Yakovlev Ye.B., Kharchenko V.A. 2015. The effect of temperature on the development of adult generations of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema arenarium isolate CH. Vestnik Zoologii, 49, 325–332. 10.1515/vzoo-2015-0035Search in Google Scholar

Yu H., Gouge D.H., Stock S., Baker B. 2008. Development of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae; Heterorhabditidae) in the Desert Subterranean Termite Heterotermes aureus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Nematology, 40, 311–317Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-5-5
Revised: 2016-11-24
Accepted: 2016-12-16
Published Online: 2017-4-18
Published in Print: 2017-6-1

© 2017 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS

Scroll Up Arrow