Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 18, 2017

Morphological description of Cosmocerca sp. (Nematoda: Cosmocerdidae) from the Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis (Amphibia: Ptychadenidae). A light and scanning electron microscopic studies

Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar, Reem Kamel, Sherein Maher, Nashwa El Deeb, Saleh Al Quraishy and Heinz Mehlhorn
From the journal Acta Parasitologica

Abstract

The Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis is a species of frog with a vast area of distribution in Africa. A total of 300 frog specimens were collected from different localities at El-Giza province, Egypt; then dissected and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Only eighty six (28.66%) specimens were found to be naturally infected with nematode parasite. Seasonally, the prevalence of infection was reached its maximum value of 74.66% during summer and minimum values of 26.66% (20/75), 13.33% (10/75) during spring and autumn, respectively; while no records were observed during winter season. The morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by using light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worm characterized by anterior extremity with small mouth opening being surrounded by three lips provided with four sub-median cephalic papillae and one pair of lateral amphids. Body measurements showed that male worms were smaller than females measuring 1.22–2.43 (2.21 ± 0.1) mm in length and 0.21–0.34 (0.29 ± 0.01) mm in width. Females measured 1.9–3.7 (2.8 ± 0.1) mm in length and 0.24–0.42 (0.38 ± 0.01) mm in width. Comparing the present parasite with other species of the same genus described previously, several similarities were observed. However, peculiar new characteristics such as the arrangement of plectanes and somatic papillae, the presence of gubernaculum, the position of nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening make it reasonable belongs to the family Cosmocercidae and identified as Cosmocerca sp. In addition, the present study was the first report for occurrence of cosmocercid species from the Mascarene grass frog in Egypt.

  1. Conflict of interest Authors stated that there is no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, for providing all the facilities to complete this work. Also, authors extend their appreciation to The Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding the work through the international research group project PRG-1436-02.

References

Abdel-Ghaffar F., Abdel-Gaber R., Maher S., El Deeb N., Kamel R., Al Quraishy S., Mehlhorn H. 2016. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of Myxobolus ridibundae n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the testicular tissue of the marsh frog Rana ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae) Egyptian Parasitology Research, 116, 133-141. 10.1007/s00436-016-5269-xSearch in Google Scholar

Aisien S.O., Ayeni F., Ilechie I. 2004. Helminth fauna of anurans from the Guinea savannah at New Bussa, Nigeria. African Zoology, 39, 133–136Search in Google Scholar

Assemian N.E., Bony K.Y., Konan K.F., Aliko N.G., Oussou H.K. 2016. Helminth infection pattern of Ptychadena mascareniensis from Daloa city (Ivory Coast) with respect to frog age and sex. International Journal of Information Research and Review, 3, 1717–1721Search in Google Scholar

Baker M.R. (Ed.). 1987. Synopsis of the nematoda parasitic in amphibians and reptiles. Occasional Papers in Biology. No 11. Memorial University of Newfoundland. Guelph, Ontario, CanadaSearch in Google Scholar

Boquimpani-Freitas L., Vrcibradic D., Vicente J.J., Bursey C.R., Rocha C.F.D., Van Sluys M. 2001. Helminths of the horned leaf frog, Proceratophrys appendiculata, from southeastern Brazil. Journal of Helminthology, 75, 233–236Search in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Goldberg S.R., Kraus F. 2005. New genus, new species of Cestoda (Anoplocephalidae), new species of Nematoda (Cosmocercidae) and other helminths in Cyrtodactylus louisiadensis (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea. Journal of Parasitology, 91, 882–88910.1645/GE-3450.1Search in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Goldberg S.R., Kraus F. 2013. A new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) and other helminths from Barygenys atra (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea. Acta Parasitologica, 58, 26–2910.2478/s11686-013-0101-6Search in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Goldberg S.R., Pamarlee J.R. 2001. Gastrointestinal helminths of 51 species of anurans from Reserva Cuzco Amazónico, Peru. Comparative Parasitology, 68, 21–35Search in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Goldberg S.R., Siler C.D., Brown R.M. 2015. A new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and other helminths in Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Philippines. Acta Parasitologica, 60, 675–681. 10.1515/ap-2015-0096Search in Google Scholar

Bush A.O., Lafferty K.D., Lotz J.M., Shostak A.W. 1997. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisted. Journal of Parasitology, 83, 575–583. 10.2307/3284227Search in Google Scholar

Dale V.H., Beyeler S.C. 2001. Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators. Ecological Indicators, 1, 3–10. 10.1016/S1470-160X(01)00003-6Search in Google Scholar

Daszak P., Cunningham A.A., Hyatt A.D. 2003. Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distributions, 9, 141–150. 10.1046/j.1472-4642.2003.00016.xSearch in Google Scholar

Diesing K. 1861. Revision der nematoden. Sitzungsbericte der Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch und Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse Wein, 42, 595–736. ( In German)Search in Google Scholar

Duellman W.E., Trueb L. (Eds). 1986. Biology of Amphibians. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA10.2307/1445022Search in Google Scholar

Duméril A.M.C., Bibron G.(Eds). 1841. Erpétologie Genérale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Volume 8. Paris: Librarie Enclyclopedique de Roret ( In French)Search in Google Scholar

Durette-Desset M.C, Batchvarov G. 1974. Deux nématodes parasites d’amphibiens du Togo. Annales de Parasitologie, Paris, 49, 567–576 ( In French)10.1051/parasite/1974495567Search in Google Scholar

Frost D.R. 2007 Amphibian species of the world: an online reference. Version 4.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USASearch in Google Scholar

Gassmann M. 1975. Contribution à l’étude des trématodes d’amphibiens du Cameroun. Annales de Parasitologie, Paris, 50, 559– 577 ( In French)10.1051/parasite/1975505559Search in Google Scholar

Goldberg S.R., Bursey C.R., Caldwell J.P., Vitt L.J., Costa G.C. 2007. Gastrointestinal helminths from six species of frogs and three species of lizards, sympatric in Pará State, Brazil. Comparative Parasitology, 74, 327–342. 10.1654/4268.1Search in Google Scholar

González C.E., Hamann M.I. 2008. Nematode parasites of two anuran species Rhinella schneideri (Bufonidae) and Scinax acuminatus (Hylidae) from Corrientes, Argentina. Revista de Biolog a Tropical, 56, 2147–216110.15517/rbt.v56i4.5785Search in Google Scholar PubMed

González C.E., Hamann M.I. 2009. First report of nematode parasites of Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864) (Anura: Leiuperidae) from Corrientes, Argentina. Neotropical Helminthology, 6, 9–2310.24039/rnh201261992Search in Google Scholar

Gray M.J., Smith L.M., Miller D.L., Bursey C.R. 2007. Influences of agricultural land use on Clinostomum attenuatum metacercariae prevalence in southern great plains amphibians. U.S.A. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 2, 23–28Search in Google Scholar

Hof C., Araujo M.B., Jetz W., Rahbek C. 2011. Additive threats from pathogens, climate and land-use change for global amphibian diversity. Nature, 480, 516–U137. 10.1038/nature10650Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Hoff G., Frye F., Jacobson E. (Eds). 1984. Diseases of Amphibians and Reptiles. Plenum Press, ISBN 978-0306417115. New York, USA10.1007/978-1-4615-9391-1Search in Google Scholar

Johnson P.T.J., Chase J.M. 2004. Parasites in the food web: linking amphibian malformations and aquatic eutrophication. Ecology Letters, 7, 521–526. 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00610.xSearch in Google Scholar

Johnson P.T.J., Chase J.M., Dosh K.L., Hartson R.B., Gross J.A., Larson D.J., et al. 2007. Aquatic eutrophication promotes pathogenic infection in amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104: 15781–15786. 10.1073/pnas.0707763104Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Johnson P.T.J., Lunde K.B., Ritchie E.G., Launer A.E. 1999. The effect of trematode infection on amphibian limb development and survivorship. Science, 284, 802–804. 10.1126/science.284.5415.802Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Kiesecker J.M. 2002. Synergism between trematode infection and pesticide exposure: a link to amphibian limb deformities in nature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 9900–9904. 10.1073/pnas.152098899Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Kirin D., Buchvarov G. 2002. Biodiversity of the helminthes communities of acaudated amphibians (Amphibia-Ecaudata) from Bistritsa riverside (Gotse Delchev region). Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, 5, 13–16. 10.2478/s11687-010-0035-6Search in Google Scholar

Kung C.C., Wu H.W. 1945. Parasitic nematodes of Amphibia from Pehpei, Szechwan, China. Sinensia, 16, 78–83Search in Google Scholar

Martinez S.A., Maggenti A.R. 1989. Cosmocerca panamaensis sp. n. (Nemata: Cosmocercidae) from the Panamanian Poison-arrow Frog, Dendrobates pumilio Schmidt, 1857, with a Discussion of Prodelphy, the Type Species and Family Authorship in Cosmocerca Diesing, 1861. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 56, 97–103. 10.1654/4076Search in Google Scholar

McAllister C.T., Bursey C.R. 2004. Endoparasites of the dark-sided salamander, Eurycea longicauda melanopleura, and the cave salamander, Eurtcea lucifuga (Caudata: Plethodontidae), from two caves in Arkansas, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology, 71, 61–66. 10.1654/4076Search in Google Scholar

Mohammed M.K., Al-Moussawi A.A., Jasim S.Y. 2010. Helminth parasites of the Green toad Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 in Baghdad Area, Central Iraq. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences, 2, 17–2510.21608/eajbsz.2010.15906Search in Google Scholar

Moravec F., Barus V., Rysavy B. 1987. Some parasitic nematodes, excluding Heterakidae and Pharyngodonidae, from amphibians and reptiles in Egypt. Folia Parasitologica, 34, 255–267Search in Google Scholar

Moravec F., Sey O. 1985. Some nematode parasites of frogs (Rana spp.) from North Viet Nam. Parasitologia Hungarica, 18, 63–77Search in Google Scholar

Patz J.A., Campbell-Lendrum D., Holloway T., Foley J.A. 2005. Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature, 438: 310–317. 10.1038/nature04188Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Railliet A. 1916. L’évolution des Schistosomes ou Bilharzies, D’après MM. Leiper, Atkinson et autres. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire 92, 426. ( In French)Search in Google Scholar

Rizvi A.N., Bursey C.R., Bhutia1 B.T. 2011. Cosmocerca kalesari sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) in Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Amphibia, Anura) from Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary, Haryana, India. Acta Parasitologica, 56, 202–207. 10.2478/s11686-011-0028-8Search in Google Scholar

Saad A.I., Khalifa R., Moustafa N. 2009. Studies on the Life Cycle and Identity of Paracosmocerca mucronata (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) in Amphibians under Experimental Conditions. World Journal of Zoology, 4, 29–36Search in Google Scholar

Sessions S.K., Ruth S.B. 1990. Explanation for naturally occurring supernumerary limbs in amphibians. The Journal of Experimental Zoology, 254, 38–47. 10.1002/jez.1402540107Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Sou S.K., Nandi A.P. 2015. On a new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) from Microhyla rubra (Anura: Microhylidae) from West Bengal, India. Acta Parasitologica, 60, 261–265. 10.1515/ap-2015-0037Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Stuart S.N., Chanson J.S., Cox N.A., Young B.E., Rodrigues A.S., Fischman D.L., Waller R.W. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science, 306, 1783–1786. 10.1126/science.1103538Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Tkach V.V., Kuzmin Y., Pulis E.E. 2006. A new species of Rhabdias from lungs of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, in North America: The last sibling of Rhabdias ranae?. Journal of Parasitology, 92, 631–636. 10.1645/GE-625R.1Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Travassos L. 1925. Contribuicoes para o conhecimento da fauna helmintologica dos batrachios do Brasil. Nematodeos intestinais. Science and Medicine, 3, 673-687. 10.1590/S0101-81751990000400015Search in Google Scholar

Yildirımhan H.S., Bursey C.R., Goldberg S.R. 2006. Helminth parasites of the Taurus frog, Rana holtzi, and the Uludag frog, Rana macrocnemis, with remarks on the helminth community of Turkish anurans. Comparative Parasitology, 73, 237–248. 10.1654/4191.1Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-11-29
Revised: 2017-1-6
Accepted: 2017-1-20
Published Online: 2017-4-18
Published in Print: 2017-6-1

© 2017 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS