Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 5, 2017

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii infections among horses and donkeys in Nigeria, West Africa

  • Eva Bártová EMAIL logo , Kamil Sedlák , Kateřina Kobédová , Marie Budíková , Yakubu Joel Atuman and Joshua Kamani
From the journal Acta Parasitologica


Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are considered to be a globally distributed parasites affecting wide range of warm-blooded animals. Neosporosis has caused clinical illness in horses and consumption of horse meat has been epidemiologically linked to clinical toxoplasmosis in humans. This study was conducted to determine Neospora spp. and T. gondii antibodies and risk factors of infection in horses and donkeys from three states of Nigeria. A total of 144 samples were collected from clinically healthy animals (120 horses and 24 donkeys). The sera were tested for antibodies to Neospora spp. and T. gondii by indirect fluorescence antibody test, a titer ≥ 50 was considered positive. Seroprevalence data were statistically analyzed, considering the variables of gender, age, use, state, origin of breed and type of management. Antibodies to Neospora spp. and T. gondii were detected in 8% horses with titers 50 and in 24% horses with titers 50–800, respectively. Co-infection of both parasites was proved in three horses (3%). Statistical differences were found only for T. gondii seroprevalence in horses with different use, locality, origin and management (p-value ≤ 0.05). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in four (17%) of 24 donkeys with statistical difference (p-value ≤ 0.05) in animals of different use; antibodies to Neospora spp. were not proved in any of the donkeys. This is the first seroprevalence study of Neospora spp. and T. gondii in equids from Nigeria.


We would like to thank Anna Kompauerová for sample examination.


Aganga A.O., Kwanashie G.G., Belino E.D. 1983. Toxoplasma antibodies in polo horses of Nigeria. International Journal of Zoonoses, 10, 155 –158Search in Google Scholar

Almeida J.C., Vidotto O., Ferreira E.P., Ribeiro L.P., Monqruel A.C., Vieira T.S., et al. 2017. Serosurvey of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sport horses from Paraiba state, Northeastern Brazil. Acta Parasitologica, 62, 225 –227. DOI: 10.1515/ap-2017-002810.1515/ap-2017-0028Search in Google Scholar

Bártová E., Machačová T., Sedlák K., Budíková M., Mariani U., Veneziano V. 2015. Seroprevalence of antibodies of Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from southern Italy. Folia Parasitology, 62, 043. DOI: 10.14411/fp.2015.04310.14411/fp.2015.043Search in Google Scholar

Boughattas S., Bergaoui R., Essid R., Aoun K., Bouratbine A. 2011. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among horses in Tunisia. Parasite and Vectors 4, 218. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-21810.1186/1756-3305-4-218Search in Google Scholar

Dubey J.P. 2004. Toxoplasmosis-water borne zoonosis. Review. Veterinary Parasitology, 126, 57–72. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.09.00510.1016/j.vetpar.2004.09.005Search in Google Scholar

Dubey J.P., Porterfield M.L. 1990. Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa) in an aborted equine fetus. Journal of Parasitology, 76, 732 – 734. DOI: 10.2307/328299110.2307/3282991Search in Google Scholar

El-Ghaysh A. 1998. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Egyptian donkeys using ELISA. Veterinary Parasitology, 80, 71 – 73. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(98)00177-010.1016/S0304-4017(98)00177-0Search in Google Scholar

Fonseca de Araujo Valenca S.R., Barreto Valenca R.M., Pinheiro Junior J.W., Feitosa de Albuquerque P.P., Souza Neto O.L., Aparecido Mota R. 2015. Risk factors of occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii among horses in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Acta Parasitologica, 60, 707 –711. DOI: 10.1515/ap-2015-010010.1515/ap-2015-0100Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Jakubek E.B., Lundén A., Uggla A. 2006. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora sp. infections in Swedish horses. Veterinary Parasitology, 138, 194–199. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.02.00210.1016/j.vetpar.2006.02.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Dubey J.P., Mitchell S.M., Morrow J.K., Rhyan J.C., Stewart L.M., Granstrom D.E., et al. 2003. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Toxoplasma gondii in wild horses from central Wyoming. Journal of Parasitology, 89, 716–720. DOI: 10.1645/GE-66R10.1645/GE-66RSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Haridy F.M., Shoukry N.M., Hassan A.A., Morsy T.A. 2009. ELISA-seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in draught horses in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 39, 821–826Search in Google Scholar

Kouam M.K., Diakou A., Kanzoura V., Papadopoulos E., Gajadhar A.A., Theodoropoulos G.A. 2010. Seroepidemiological study of exposure to Toxoplasma, Leishmania, Echinococcus and Trichinella in equids in Greece and analysis of risk factors. Veterinary Parasitology, 170, 170–175. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.02.00410.1016/j.vetpar.2010.02.004Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Machačová T., Bártová E., Di Loria A., Sedlák K., Guccione J., Fulgione D., Veneziano, V., 2013. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora spp. in donkeys from Southern Italy. Veterinary Parasitology, 198, 201–204. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.08.01310.1016/j.vetpar.2013.08.013Search in Google Scholar

Machačová T., Bártová E., Di Loria A., Sedlak K., Mariani U., Fusco G., Fulgione D., Veneziano V., Dubey J.P. 2014. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 76, 265–267. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00346-110.1016/S0304-4017(02)00346-1Search in Google Scholar

Pitel P.H., Lindsay D.S. Caure S., Romand S., Pronost S., Gargala G., Mitchell S.M., Hary C., Thulliez P., Fortier G., Ballet J.J. 2003a. Reactivity against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora by serum antibodies in healthy French horses from two farms with previous equine protozoal myeloencephalitis-like cases. Veterinary Parasitology, 111, 1–7. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00346-110.1016/S0304-4017(02)00346-1Search in Google Scholar

Pitel P.H., Romand S., Pronost S., Foucher N., Gargala G., Maillard K., Thulliez P., Collobert-Laugier C., Tainturier D., Fortier G., Ballet J.J. 2003b. Investigation of Neospora sp. antibodies in aborted mares from Normandy, France. Veterinary Parasitology, 118, 1–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2003.10.00710.1016/j.vetpar.2003.10.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Pomares Ch., Ajzenberg D., Bornard L., Bernardin G., Hasseine L., Dardé M.L., Marty P., 2011. Toxoplasmosis and horse meat, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, 17, 1327–1328. DOI: 10.3201/eid1707.10164210.3201/eid1707.101642Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

StatSoft, Inc., 2013, STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 12. www.statsoft.comSearch in Google Scholar

Tassi P. 2007. Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses. A review. Parassitologia, 49, 7–15Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-1-18
Revised: 2017-4-28
Accepted: 2017-5-5
Published Online: 2017-7-5
Published in Print: 2017-9-26

© 2017 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS

Downloaded on 26.2.2024 from
Scroll to top button