Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 15, 2017

Abundance and species composition of Culicoides spp. biting midges near cattle and horse in South-Eastern Poland

Magdalena Larska, Maria Grochowska, Lech Lechowski and Jan Franciszek Żmudziński
From the journal Acta Parasitologica

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts – cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, while AHSV remains absent, however the risk of its emergence has been increasing in the recent years. In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland. Another trap has been placed 7 km away at the cattle farm. The collections were carried over the midge activity season from April until November 2016. The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. Midges belonging to C. obsoletus/scoticus complex were the dominant ones at both locations. The other most abundant species were C. punctatus and C. pulicaris, while the other ten species identified (C. chiopterus, C. deltus, C. dewulfi, C. fagineus, C. impunctatus, C. newsteadi, C. nubeculosus, C. parroti, C. riethi, C. stigma) accounted for less than 0.5%. The study has shown that the Orbivirus vectors are present at a high abundance at the Polish horse farm, what may be a helpful tool in the AHS risk assessment in the nonendemic part of Europe.

Acknowledgements

The midge trapping at the cattle farm as a part of BTV vector monitoring program has been funded by the Chief Veterinary Office. The collections of Culicoides from the horse farm was funded by VectorNet a European network for sharing data on the geographic distribution of arthropod vectors, transmitting human and animal disease agents (Subcontract for field work) funded by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

References

Ander M., Troell K., Chirico J. 2012. Seasonal dynamics of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides), the potential vectors of bluetongue virus, in Sweden. Veterinary Parasitology, 184, 59–67. 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.08.009Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Braverman Y., Mumcuoglu K. 2009. Newly emerged nulliparous Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) with pigmented abdomen. Veterinary Parasitology, 160, 356–8. 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.11.016Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Carpenter S., Groschup M.H., Garros C., Felippe-Bauer M.L., Purse B.V. 2013. Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe. Antiviral Research, 100, 102–13. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.07.020Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Clausen P.H., Stephan A., Bartsch S., Jandowsky A., Hoffmann-Köhler P., Schein E., et al. 2009. Seasonal dynamics of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on dairy farms of Central Germany during the 2007/2008 epidemic of bluetongue. Parasitology Research, 105, 381–6. 10.1007/s00436-009-1417-xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Dyce A.L.: The recognition of nulliparous and parous Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) without dissection. Journal of Australian Entomology Society, 1969, 8, 11–15. 10.1111/j.1440-6055.1969.tb00727.xSearch in Google Scholar

Elbers A.R., Koenraadt C.J., Meiswinkel R. 2015. Mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges: vector range and the influence of climate change. Scientific and Technical Review of the Office International des Epizooties, 34, 123–3710.20506/rst.34.1.2349Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Elbers AR, Meiswinkel R. 2015. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and livestock in the Netherlands: comparing host preference and attack rates on a Shetland pony, a dairy cow, and a sheep. Journal of Vector Ecology, 40, 308–317. 10.1111/jvec.12169Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Fassotte C., Delecolle J.C., Cors R., Defrance T., De Deken R., Haubruge E., Losson B. 2008. Culicoides trapping with Rothamsted suction traps before and during the bluetongue epidemic of 2006 in Belgium. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 87, 74–83. 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2008.06.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Faverjon C., Leblond A., Hendrikx P., Balenghien T., de Vos C.J., Fischer E.A., de Koeijer A.A. 2015. A spatiotemporal model to assess the introduction risk of African horse sickness by import of animals and vectors in France. BMC Veterinary Research, 11, 127. 10.1186/s12917-015-0435-4Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Gale P., Brouwer A., Ramnial V., Kelly L., Kosmider R., Fooks A.R., Snary E.L. 2010. Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion. Epidemiology and Infection, 138, 214–25. 10.1017/S0950268809990367Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Glukhova V. 1989. Blood-suckling midges of the genera Culicoides and Forcipomyia (Ceratopogonidae). Fauna of the USSR, 1–408. (In Russian)Search in Google Scholar

Guichard S., Guis H., Tran A., Garros C., Balenghien T., Kriticos D.J. 2014. Worldwide niche and future potential distribution of Culicoides imicola, a major vector of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses. PLoS One 9:e112491. 10.1371/journal.pone.0112491Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Gutsevich A.V. 1973. Blood-sucking midges (Ceratopogonidae). Fauna SSSR, 3, 269. (In Russian)Search in Google Scholar

Harrup L.E., Purse B.V., Golding N., Mellor P.S., Carpenter S. 2013. Larval development and emergence sites of farm-associated Culicoides in the United Kingdom. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 27, 441–449. 10.1111/mve.1200Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Hoffmann B., Bauer B., Bauer C., Bätza H.J., Beer M., Clausen P.H., et al. 2009. Monitoring of putative vectors of bluetongue virus serotype 8, Germany. Emerging and Infectious Diseases, 15, 1481–1414. 10.3201/eid1509.090562Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Isaev V.A. 1993. Autogeny in bloodsucking biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Parazitologiia, 27, 273–279. (In Russian)Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Kirkeby C., Dominiak P. 2014. Culicoides (Avaritia) gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) – a possible vector species of the Obsoletus group new to the European fauna. Parasitological Vectors, 7, 445. 10.1186/1756-3305-7-445Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Larska M., Kęsik-Maliszewska J., Kuta A. 2014. Spread of Schmallenberg virus infections in the ruminants in Poland between 2012 and 2013. Bulletin of Veterinary Institute Pulawy, 58, 169–176. DOI:10.2478/bvip-2014-002610.2478/bvip-2014-0026Search in Google Scholar

Larska M., Lechowski L., Grochowska M., Żmudziński J.F. 2013a. Detection of the Schmallenberg virus in nulliparous Culicoides obsoletus/scoticus complex and C. punctatus – the possibility of transovarial virus transmission in the midge population and of a new vector. Veterinary Microbiology, 166, 467–473. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.07.015Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Larska M., Polak M.P., Grochowska M., Lechowski .L, Związek J.S., Żmudziński J.F. 2013b. First report of Schmallenberg virus infection in cattle and midges in Poland. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 60, 97–101. 10.1111/tbed.12057Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Lassen S.B., Nielsen S.A., Kristensen M. 2012. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark. Parasitogical Vectors, 5, 143. 10.1186/1756-3305-5-143Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

MacLachlan N.J, . Guthrie A.J. 2010. Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other Orbivirus diseases. Veterinary Research, 41, 35 10.1051/vetres/2010007Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Martínez-de la Puente J., Figuerola J., Soriguer R. 2015. Fur or feather? Feeding preferences of species of Culicoides biting midges in Europe. Trends in Parasitology, 31, 16–22.10.1016/j.pt.2014.11.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Meiswinkel, R., Venter, G.J., Nevill, E.M., 2004. Vectors: Culicoides spp. In: (Eds: J.A.W. Coetzer, R.C. Tustin. Infectious Diseases of Livestock). Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 93–136Search in Google Scholar

Mellor P.S., Boned J., Hamblin C., Graham S. 1990. Isolation of African horse sickness virus from vector insects made during the 1988 epizootic in Spain. Epidemiology and Infection, 105, 447–45410.1017/S0950268800048020Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Mellor P.S., Boorman J., Baylis M. 2000. Culicoides biting midges: their role as arbovirus vectors. Annual Review of Entomology, 45, 307–34010.1146/annurev.ento.45.1.307Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Orłowska A., Trabas P., Smreczak M., Marzec A, Żmudziński J.F. 2016. First detection of bluetongue virus serotype 14 in Poland. Archives of Virology, 161, 1969–1972. 10.1007/s00705-016-2857-0Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Pejsak Z., Truszczyński M., Niemczuk K., Kozak E., Markowska-Daniel I. 2014. Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in Poland since the detection of the first case. Polish Journal of Veterinary Science, 17, 665–672. 10.2478/pjvs-2014-0097Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Pielou E.C. (Ed.) 1974. Population and Community Ecology: Principles and Methods. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, USASearch in Google Scholar

Potter H.W., Akey D.H. 1978. Pigmentation associated with oogenesis in the biting midge, Culicoides variipennis, changes abdominal tergite patterns. Mosqito News, 1978, 38, 499–504Search in Google Scholar

Purse B.V., Carpenter S., Venter G.J., Bellis G., Mullens B.A. 2015. Bionomics of temperate and tropical culicoides midges: knowledge gaps and consequences for transmission of culicoidesborne viruses. Annual Review of Entomology, 60, 373–39210.1146/annurev-ento-010814-020614Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Purse B.V., Mellor P.S., Rogers D.J, Samuel A.R., Mertens P.P., Baylis M. 2005. Climate change and the recent emergence of bluetongue in Europe. Nature Reviews Microbiology 3, 171–18110.1038/nrmicro1090Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Rádrová J., Mračková M., Galková Z., Lamka J., Račka K., Barták P., Votýpka J. 2016. Seasonal dynamics, parity rate, and composition of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) occurring in the vicinity of wild and domestic ruminants in the Czech Republic. Journal of Medical Entomology, 53, 416–42410.1093/jme/tjv197Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Rawlings P., Mellor P.S. 1994. African horse sickness and the overwintering of Culicoides spp. in the Iberian peninsula. Scientific and Technical Review of the Office International des Epizooties, 13, 753–76110.20506/rst.13.3.797Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Saegerman C., Berkvens D., Mellor P.S. 2008. Bluetongue Epidemiology in the European Union. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14, 539–544. 10.3201/eid1404.071441Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Sánchez-Matamoros A., Sánchez-Vizcaíno J.M., Rodríguez-Prieto V., Iglesias E., Martínez-López B. 2016. Identification of suitable areas for African horse sickness virus infections in Spanish equine populations. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 63, 564–573. 10.1111/tbed.12302Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Sanders C.J., Shortall C.R., Gubbins S., Burgin L., Gloster J., Harrington R., et al. 2011. Influence of season and meteorological parameters on flight activity of Culicoides biting midges. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 1355–1364. 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02051.xSearch in Google Scholar

Sarvašová A., Kočišová A., Liptáková E., Hiavatá H., Mathieu B. 2016. First insights into indoor and outdoor Culicoides activity related to the risk period for Bluetongue virus transmission in Eastern Slovakia. Acta Parasitologica, 61, 743–755. 10.1515/ap-2016-0103Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Sprygin A.V., Fiodorova O.A., Babin Y.Y., Elatkin N.P., Mathieu B., England M.E., Kononov A.V. 2014. Culicoides biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in various climatic zones of Russia and adjacent lands. Journal of Vector Ecology, 39, 306–315. 10.1111/jvec.12105Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Szadziewski R, Dominiak P. 2016. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Poland: a checklist. Dipteron, 32, 77–93Search in Google Scholar

Thompson G.M., Jess S., Murchie A.K. 2013. Differential emergence of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from on-farm breeding substrates in Northern Ireland. Parasitology, 140, 699–708. 10.1017/S0031182012002016Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Venter G.J., Nevill E.M., Van Der Linde T.C. 1997. Seasonal abundance and parity of stock-associated Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in different climatic regions in southern Africa in relation to their viral vector potential. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 64, 259–271Search in Google Scholar

Versteirt V., Balenghien T., Tack W., Wint W. 2017. A first estimation of Culicoides imicola and Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus seasonality and abundance in Europe. EFSA supporting publication 2017, EN-1182. pp. 35. 10.2903/sp.efsa.2017.EN-1182Search in Google Scholar

Viennet E., Garros C., Gardès L., Rakotoarivony I., Allène X., Lancelot R., et al. 2013. Host preferences of Palaearctic Culicoides biting midges: implications for transmission of orbiviruses. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 27, 255–266. 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2012.01042.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Received: 2017-5-8
Revised: 2017-7-18
Accepted: 2017-7-20
Published Online: 2017-10-15
Published in Print: 2017-12-20

© 2017 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS