Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 18, 2018

New Species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) in Batagur trivittata (Testudines: Geoemydidae) from Myanmar

  • Charles R. Bursey EMAIL logo and Steven G. Platt
From the journal Acta Parasitologica


Falcaustra tintlwini sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Kathlaniidae) from the large intestine of Batagur trivittata (Testudines, Geoemydidae) is described and illustrated. Falcaustra tintlwini represents the 20th Oriental species assigned to the genus and is distinguished from other Oriental species by the distribution pattern of the caudal papillae (6 precloacal, 12 postcloacal, and 1 median), length of spicules (0.43-0.50 mm) and absence of a pseudosucker.


We thank the Minister of the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry, Director General and Deputy Director General of the Planning and Statistics Department of the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry, Director General and Deputy Director General of the Forest Department and the Director of NWDC for their dedication to wildlife conservation in Myanmar and allowing us to conduct this survey. Tint Lwin, Myo Min Win, and Zaw Zaw assisted with parasite collections. Funding for this project was provided by Andy Sabin and the Andrew Sabin Family Foundation, and Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. Than Myint, Saw Htun, Colin Poole, and Rick Hudson have been instrumental in insuring the long-term success of our turtle conservation efforts in Myanmar. Comments from Peter Paul van Dijk and Thomas R. Rainwater improved an early draft of our manuscript


Anderson R.C. 2000. Nematode parasites of vertebrates: their development and transmission, 2nd ed. CABI Publishing, Walling-ford, UK, pp. 65010.1079/9780851994215.0001Search in Google Scholar

Anderson R.C, Chabaud A.G, Willmott S. (Eds.) 2009. Keys to the Nematode parasites of Vertebrates. Archival Volume. CABI International, Wallingford, UK, pp.46310.1079/9781845935726.0000Search in Google Scholar

Balasingam E. 1964. Some helminth parasites of Malayan reptiles. Bulletin of the National Museum, Singapore, 32,103–127Search in Google Scholar

Baylis H.A. 1920. A new Siamese nematode of the genus Falcaustra. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9, 6, 4048– 41610.1080/00222932008632455Search in Google Scholar

Baylis H.A. 1933. On a collection of nematodes from Malayan Reptiles. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 10, 11, 615–63310.1080/00222933308673735Search in Google Scholar

Baylis H.A. 1935. Two new parasitic nematodes from Ceylon. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 10, 16, 187–19210.1080/00222933508655035Search in Google Scholar

Baylis H.A., Daubney, R. 1922. Report on the parasitic nematodes in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India. Memoirs of the Indian Museum, 7, 263–347Search in Google Scholar

Berry J.F. 1984. Redescription of Falcaustra duyagi (Tubangui and Villaamil, 1933) Freitas and Lent, 1941 (Nematoda: Cosmocercoidea from Cuora amboinensis (Testudinidae) of Malaysia. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62, 1685–1688. 10.1139/z84-247Search in Google Scholar

Bilqees F.M., Khanum Z. 1971. Marine fish nematodes of West Pakistan IV. A new species of the genus Kathlania Lane, 1914. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 3, 67–69Search in Google Scholar

Brooks D.R., Leon-Regagnon V., McLennan D.A., Zelmer D. 2006. Ecological fitting as a determinant of the community structure of platyhelminth parasites of anurans. Ecology, 87(suppl.), S76–S8510.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[76:EFAADO]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Brooks D.R., McLennan D.A. 2002. The nature of diversity: an evolutionary voyage of discovery. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois, pp. 66810.7208/chicago/9780226922478.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Freeman J.M. 2005. New species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) from Heosemys grandis (Testundines: Emydidae). Journal of Parasitology, 9, 1150–1152. 10.1645/GE-3481.1Search in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Goldberg S.R, Bauer A. M. 2009. A new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda, Kathlaniidae) from Cnemaspis aff. tropidogaster (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from Sri Lanka. Acta Parasitological, 54, 41–44. 10.2478/s116866-009-0006-6Search in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Goldberg S.R., Grismser L. L. 2014. New species of Bakeria (Nematoda; Strongylida; Molineidae), new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida; Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Cnemaspis mcquirei (Sauria; Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Acta Parasitologica, 59, 643–652. 10.2478/s11686-0144-0299-ySearch in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Goldberg. S.R., Kusamba, C., Greenbaum, E. 2018. New species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Amietia nutti (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) from Albertine Rift of Central Africa. Comparative Parasitology, in press10.1654/1525-2647-85.2.177Search in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Goldberg S.R., Miller C.L. 2004. Two new species of Falcaustra and comments on helminths of Norops tropidolepis (Sauria: Polychrotidae) from Costa Rica. Journal of Parasitology, 90, 598–603. 10.1645/GE-3303Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Bursey C.R., Kinsella J.M. 2003. Falcaustra greineri n. sp. (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) from Orlitia borneensis (Testudines: Emydidae). Journal of Parasitology, 89, 961–964. 10.1645/GE-3179Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Bursey C.R., Platt S.G., Rainwater T.R. 2000. Falcaustra kutcheri n. sp. (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) from Geoemyda yuwonoi (Testudines: Emydidae) from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Parasitology, 86, 344–349. 10.2307/3284780Search in Google Scholar

Bursey C.R., Rivera S. 2009. New species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida: Kathlaniidae) in the impressed tortoise, Manouria impressa (Testudines: Testudinidae). Comparative Parasitology, 76, 141–148. 10.16654/4375.1Search in Google Scholar

Chabaud A.G. 1978. CIH keys to the nematode parasites of vertebrates. No. 6. Keys to genera of the superfamilies Cosmocercoidea, Seuratoidea, Heterakoides and Subuluroidea. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks, England, pp. 71Search in Google Scholar

Chatterji R.C. 1936. The helminths parasitic in the fresh-water turtles of Rangoon. Records of the Indian Museum, 38, 81–94Search in Google Scholar

Chitwood B.G., Chitwood M.B. 1974. Introduction to nematology. University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 334Search in Google Scholar

Chou L.M., Lowe C.M. 1984. Spironoura roberti sp. n. (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) from the Malayan box-tortoise Cuora amboinensis. Malayan Nature Journal, 38, 67–72Search in Google Scholar

Cilingir F.G., Rheindt F.E., Garg K.M., Platt K., Platt S.G., Bickford D.P. 2017. Conservation genomics of the endangered Burmese roofed turtle. Conservation Biology, 31, 1469–1476. 10.1111/cobi.12921Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Clayton D.H., Bush S.E., Johnson K.P. 2004. Ecology of congruence: past meets present. Systematic Biology, 53, 165–173. 10..1080/10635150490265102Search in Google Scholar

Hafner M.S., Nadler S.A. 1988. Phylogenetic trees support the coevolution of parasites and their hosts. Nature, 332, 258–260. 10.1038/332258a0Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Holt B.G., Lessard, J.-P., Borregaard M.K., Fritz S.A., Araújo M.B., Dimitorv D., Fabre P.-H., Graham C.H., Graves G.R., Jonsson K.A., Nogués-Bravo, D., Wang Z., Whittaker R.J., Fjeldsa, J., Rahbek. C. 2013. An update of Wallace’s zoogeographic realms of the world. Science, 339, 74–78. 10.1126/science.1228282Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Horne B.D., Poole C.M, Walde A.D. 2012. Conservation of Asian tortoises and freshwater turtles: setting priorities for the next ten years. Recommendations and conclusions from the Workshop in Singapore, February 21–24, 2011. Wildlife Conservation Society and Turtle Survival Alliance. Bronx, New York pp. 28Search in Google Scholar

Jehan M. 1970. Three nematode parasites from reptiles. Indian Journal of Helminthology, 22, 165–172Search in Google Scholar

Karve J.N. 1927. A new nematode from a Burmese tortoise (Testudo emys). Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parsitology, 21, 343– 35010.1080/00034983.1927.11684542Search in Google Scholar

Karve J.N. 1941. Some parasitic nematodes of fishes—I. Journal of the University of Bombay, 10, 9–42Search in Google Scholar

Karve J.N., Naik G.G. 1951. Some parasitic nematodes of fishes— II. Journal of the University of Bombay, 19, 1–37Search in Google Scholar

Khan D., Yaseen T. 1969. Helmilnth parasites of fishes from East Pakistan 1. Nematodes. Bulletin of the Department of Zoology University of the Panjab. Article 4, pages 1-33.Search in Google Scholar

Kuchling G., Tint Lwin. 2004. Das Arterhaltungsprojekt fuer die Dreistreifen-Dachschildkroete (Kachuga trivittata) in Zoo von Mandalay. Marginata, 1, 44–50Search in Google Scholar

Kuchling G., Win KoKo, Sein Aung Min, Tint Lwin, Khin Myo Myo, Thin Thin Khaing (1), Thin Thin Khaing (2), Win Mar Mar, Ni Ni Win. 2006. Two remnant populations of the roofed turtle Kachuga trivittata in the upper Ayeyarwady River system, Myanmar. Oryx, 40, 176–18210.1017/S0030605306000391Search in Google Scholar

Lane C. 1915. Falcaustra falcata, an investigation of Oxysoma falcatum von Linstow, 1906. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 3, 109–115Search in Google Scholar

Linstow O. von. 1906. Helminths from the collection of the Columbo Museum. Spolia Zeylanica, 3, 163–188Search in Google Scholar

Manna B., Mahapatra, M.S. 1989. Falcaustra bengalensis sp. nov. (Kathlaniidae: Nematoda) from a turtle Geoclemys hamiltoni (Gray, 1831). Indian Journal of Animal Health, 28, 133–137Search in Google Scholar

Naidu T.S.V. 1975. Record of Spironoura brevispiculata Baylis, 1935, from India. Current Science, 44, 703–704Search in Google Scholar

Platt S., Platt K. 2016. A challenging year in the fight to save Myanmar’s critically endangered turtles. Turtle Survival, 2016, 34– 38Search in Google Scholar

Platt S.G., Tint Lwin, Myo Min Win, Platt K., Rainwater T.R.. 2017. Batagur trivittata (Burmese Roofed Turtle). Description and phenology of sexual dichromatism. Herpetological Review, 48, 616–618Search in Google Scholar

Platt S.G., Win Ko Ko, Lay Lay Khaing, Khin Myo Myo, Kalyar, Rainwater T.R. 2005. Noteworthy records and comments on selected species of turtles from the Ayeyarwady, Chindwin, and Dokhtawady rivers, Myanmar. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 4, 942–948Search in Google Scholar

Rhodin A.G.J., Iverson J.B., Bour R., Fritz U., Georges A., Shaffer H.B., Dijk P.P. van. (2017). Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (8th Ed.). Chelonian Research Monographs, 7, 1–292.10.3854/crm.7.checklist.atlas.v8.2017Search in Google Scholar

Rhodin A.G.J., Walde A.D., Horne B.D., Dijk P.P. van, Blanck T., Hudson R. 2011. Turtles in trouble: The worlds 25+ most endangered tortoises and freshwater turtles – 2011. IUCN Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group, Turtle Conservation Fund, Turtle Survival Alliance, Turtle Conservancy/Behler Conservation Center, chelonian Research Foundation, Conservation International, Wildlife Conservation Society, and San Diego Zoo Global. pp. 54Search in Google Scholar

Sathananthan, A.H. 1972. On two nematodes of the genus Spironoura (Oxyuroidea: Kathlaniidae). Journal of Helminthology, 46, 167–173. 10.1017/S0022149X00022264Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Schmidt, G.D., Kuntz, R.E. 1972. Nematode parasites of Oceanica. XIX. Report on a collection from Philippine reptiles. Transactions American Microscopical Society, 91, 63–66. 10.2307/3224859Search in Google Scholar

Singh S.N. 1958. On an interesting new nematode Velariocephalus trilokiae gen. et sp. nov. from an Indian frog and a new subfamily Velariocephalinae (Cosmocercidae). Journal of Helminthology, 32, 259–266. 10.1017/S0022149X00019805Search in Google Scholar

Soota T.D. 1975. Description of a new species of Spironoura Leidy, 1856 (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) with remarks on some other nematodes. Dr. B. S. Chauhan Commemorative Volume 1975, pages 241–245. Stewart, F.H. 1914. Studies in Indian Helminthology, No. I. Records of the Indian Museum, 10, 165–193Search in Google Scholar

Soota T.D., Chaturvedi Y. 1971. On two new nematodes from the unnamed collection of the Zoological Survey of India. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 186, 153–158Search in Google Scholar

Sullivan, J.J. 1976. Parapleurogonius brevicecum gen. et sp. n. (Trematoda: Pronocephalidae) from a freshwater turtles in Peninsular Malaysia. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 7, 540–542Search in Google Scholar

Tubangui M.A., Villaamil R. 1933. Nematodes in the collection of the Philippine Bureau of Science, I: Oxyuroidea The Philippine Journal of Science, 51, 607–615Search in Google Scholar

Yuen P.H. 1963. On three new species of the genus Falcaustra Lane (Nematoda-Kathaniidae) from Malayan Amphibians. Journal of Helminthology, 37:241–250. 10.1017/S0022149X00003837Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2018-05-02
Revised: 2018-05-13
Accepted: 2018-06-08
Published Online: 2018-10-18
Published in Print: 2018-12-19

© 2018 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS

Downloaded on 21.2.2024 from
Scroll to top button