An English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading class was transformed by integrating goal setting with reading strategy instruction for one academic year. This intervention class was compared to a traditionally taught class to determine whether any differences in terms of motivation towards learning English and reading proficiency would be found. The goals set by the intervention class were analyzed to determine (1) whether they were met and (2) what actions were performed to reach those goals. In addition, it was further investigated whether adolescent Taiwanese students are willing to be taught English reading using an approach incorporating goal setting and reading strategy instruction. Results indicate that goal setting integrated reading strategy instruction seems to be more effective in increasing reading proficiency and learner motivation than the traditional approach as well as encouraging learner autonomy and self-efficacy. Analysis of the actions performed by the intervention group to meet goals revealed two sub-groups of learners: static action students and dynamic action students. Data analysis further indicated the actions performed by dynamic action students consisted of more diverse and concrete learning strategies whereas static action students performed mostly classroom-centered review. Pedagogical implications of the results and future research directions are discussed.
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Appendix A. English learning motivation questionnaire
If English was not taught in school, I would try to obtain lessons in English somewhere else.
When it comes to English homework, I just skim over it.
Considering how I studied English, I can honestly say that I do just enough to get along.
If my teacher wants someone to do an extra English assignment, I would definitely not volunteer.
After I get my English assignment/tests back, I always rewrite them, correcting my mistakes.
I try to use English in my daily life.
I plan to continue studying English for as long as possible.
I look for as many opportunities to use English as I can.
I try to learn English not only in the classroom but also from other sources such as radio, English TV programs, newspapers, magazines and movies.
I spend extra time to improve my English.
I enjoy learning English very much.
Learning English is a hobby for me.
Learning English is a challenge that I enjoy.
I don’t enjoy learning English, but I know that learning English is important for me.
It gives me great pleasure to learn English.
I want to learn English because it will broaden my view.
I want to do well in English class because it is important to show my ability to my family/friends/supervisors/others.
I learn English because I think everybody in Taiwan should be able to speak some English.
Being able to speak English will add to my social status.
I want to learn English because it is useful when traveling in other countries.
One reason I learn English is that I can meet new people and make friends with foreigners.
I am learning English to become more educated.
I want to learn English because I need to be able to read textbooks in English.
If I learn English better, I will be able to get a better job.
I want to learn English because increasing my English proficiency will have financial benefits for me.
If I can speak English, I will have a marvelous life.
Learning English will help me understand western culture.
I want to learn English because it is helpful in using the internet or the computer.
I learn English because I want to enter a good university.
I learn English because it helps me to pass the entrance exam.
If there were no assignments or tests, I would not learn English at all.
To avoid being failed, I study English.
I take English classes because it is required.
I wouldn’t study English at all if the teacher did not ask us to.
The reason that I study English is to pass examinations.
Appendix B. Goal-oriented checklist
Student ID Number: ____________ Name: ____________
My English mid-term exam score goal is: _______.
My English final exam score goal is: _______.
Specify three actions to attain your goals:
|9 Mid-Term Exam|
|18 Final Exam|
Note: Please self-regulate the level of effort you have expended each week. Do this by rating the effort expended in performing the three actions (1=low effort; 10=high effort).
Appendix C. Actions performed by static and dynamic action students
Actions performed by static action students
|Actions performed by static action students||Action number total|
|Memorize vocabulary words||27|
|Review class material||16|
|Pay attention during class||12|
|Preview class material||9|
|Study class content||4|
|Watch English movies||3|
|Read English magazines||3|
|Take class notes||3|
|Listen to English||3|
|Listen to English songs||2|
|Use free time to memorize vocabulary words||1|
|Read either English textbook, articles, or song lyrics||1|
|Look up unknown words from the textbook||1|
|Take a reading test twice a day||1|
Note: Total for actions was calculated by multiplying the number of actions per student (3) by total number of students (33).
Actions performed by dynamic action students
|Pay attention in class|
|Memorize vocabulary words|
|Review class material|
|Review class vocabulary|
|Listen to English songs|
|Ask questions about English|
|Watch English movies|
|Lookup words in a dictionary|
|Ask my classmates questions about English|
|Look up a word’s inflected and derived forms|
|Read English sentences|
|Take class notes|
|Review mistakes on my quizzes|
|Read English magazines|
|Preview class material|
|Practice specific exercises from textbook|
|Take self-created vocabulary exam|
|Memorize inflected and derived forms of class vocabulary|
|Read a book about the GEPT|
|Review English phrases|
|Write English sentences|
|Write about an English topic|
|Review mistakes on my exams|
|Watch English news|
|Study verb inflections|
|Highlight important content in class materials|
|Organize new vocabulary into lists and groups|
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