Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton March 3, 2018

The effects of integrating goal setting and reading strategy instruction on English reading proficiency and learning motivation: A quasi-experimental study

Ying-Chun Shih and Barry Lee Reynolds

Abstract

An English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading class was transformed by integrating goal setting with reading strategy instruction for one academic year. This intervention class was compared to a traditionally taught class to determine whether any differences in terms of motivation towards learning English and reading proficiency would be found. The goals set by the intervention class were analyzed to determine (1) whether they were met and (2) what actions were performed to reach those goals. In addition, it was further investigated whether adolescent Taiwanese students are willing to be taught English reading using an approach incorporating goal setting and reading strategy instruction. Results indicate that goal setting integrated reading strategy instruction seems to be more effective in increasing reading proficiency and learner motivation than the traditional approach as well as encouraging learner autonomy and self-efficacy. Analysis of the actions performed by the intervention group to meet goals revealed two sub-groups of learners: static action students and dynamic action students. Data analysis further indicated the actions performed by dynamic action students consisted of more diverse and concrete learning strategies whereas static action students performed mostly classroom-centered review. Pedagogical implications of the results and future research directions are discussed.

References

Allen, V. G. 1989. Literature as a support to language acquisition. In P. Rigg & V. G. Allen (eds.), When they don’t all speak English: Integrating the ESL student into the regular classroom, 55–64. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, N. J. 2003. Reading. In D. Nunan (ed.), Practical English language teaching, 67–86. New York: McGraw-Hill. Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, N. J. 2013. Active skills for reading 1. Boston, MA: National Geographic Learning. Search in Google Scholar

Bandura, A. 1988. Self-regulation of motivation and action through goal systems. In V. Hamilton, G. H. Bower & N. H. Frijda (eds.), Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation, 37–61. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Search in Google Scholar

Bandura, A. 1991. Self-regulation of motivation through anticipatory and self-reactive mechanisms. In R. A. Dienstbier (ed.), Nebraska symposium, 69–164. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Search in Google Scholar

Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. Search in Google Scholar

Cabral-Marquez, C. 2011. The effects of setting reading goals on reading motivation, reading achievement, and reading activity. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Search in Google Scholar

Chamot, A. U. & J. M. O’Malley. 1994. Instructional approaches and teaching procedures. In K. Spangenberg-Urbschat & R. Pritchard (eds.), Kids come in all languages: Reading instruction for ESL students, 82–107. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Search in Google Scholar

Chamot, A. U. & J. Rubin. 1994. Comments on Janie Rees-Miller’s “A critical appraisal of learner training: Theoretical bases and teaching implications”: Two readers react. TESOL Quarterly 28(4). 771–776.10.2307/3587559 Search in Google Scholar

Chang, S.-M. 2012. The effect of specific goals on EFL students’ self-efficacy and performance of vocabulary learning. NCUE Journal of Humanities 5. 53–74. Search in Google Scholar

Chen, S. Y. & L. Lu. 2009. After-school time use in Taiwan: Effects on educational achievement and well-being. Adolescence 44(176). 891–909. Search in Google Scholar

Chern, C. 2002. English language teaching in Taiwan today. Asia-Pacific Journal of Education 22(2). 97–105.10.1080/0218879020220209 Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, A. D. 2003. Strategy training for second language learners. Retrieved from ERIC database. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (ED482492) Search in Google Scholar

Cook, L. K. & R. E. Mayer. 1983. Reading strategies training for meaningful learning from prose. In M. Pressley & J. R. Levin (eds.), Cognitive strategy research: Educational applications, 87–131. New York: Springer-Verlag. Search in Google Scholar

Creswell, J. W. 2003. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods, 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Search in Google Scholar

Deegan, D. H. 1995. Exploring individual differences among novices reading in a specific domain: The case of law. Reading Research Quarterly 30(2). 154–170.10.2307/748030 Search in Google Scholar

Dörnyei, Z. 1994. Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal 78(3). 273–284.10.1111/j.1540-4781.1994.tb02042.x Search in Google Scholar

Dörnyei, Z. 2001. New themes and approaches in second language motivation research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 21. 43–59. Search in Google Scholar

Dörnyei, Z. 2009. The L2 motivational self system. In Z. D. E. Ushioda (ed.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self, 9–42. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Search in Google Scholar

Field, A. P. 2005. Discovering statistics using spss, 2nd edn. London: SAGE. Search in Google Scholar

Förster, N. & E. Souvignier. 2014. Learning progress assessment and goal setting: Effects on reading achievement, reading motivation and reading self-concept. Learning and Instruction 32. 91–100. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.02.002 Search in Google Scholar

Gardner, R. C. 1985. Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold Publishers. Search in Google Scholar

Godwin, P. T. 2013. Goal-setting, self-monitoring, and teacher-student conferences and the relationship with overall school climate and student academic achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3601186) Search in Google Scholar

Guthrie, J., A. Wigfield & K. Perencevich (eds.). 2004. Motivating reading comprehension: Concept oriented reading instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Search in Google Scholar

Harrison, C. 2004. Understanding reading development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Search in Google Scholar

Haynes, L. 2011. Goal setting in EFL: Is it really useful? Studies in Humanities and Cultures 15. 83–92. Search in Google Scholar

Ho, M.-C. 1998. Culture studies and motivation in foreign and second language learning in Taiwan. Language, Culture and Curriculum 11(2). 165–182. doi:10.1080/07908319808666548 Search in Google Scholar

Hudelson, S. 1989. “Teaching” English through content-area activities. In P. Rigg & V. G. Allen (eds.), When they don’t all speak English: Integrating the ESL student into the regular classroom, 139–152. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Search in Google Scholar

Hung, H.-P. 2005. An investigation of factors that influence EFL college students’ reading strategy use. Changhua, Taiwan: National Changhua University of Education Unpublished master’s thesis. Search in Google Scholar

Jiang, Y. & J.-M. Dewaele. 2015. What lies bubbling beneath the surface? A longitudinal perspective on fluctuations of ideal and Out-to L2 self among Chinese learners of English. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 53(3). 331–354. doi:10.1515/iral–2015–0015 Search in Google Scholar

Kao, C.-W. 2007. Applying strategy training to a remedial English program in a vocational school. Journal of Yuanpei University 14. 25–36. Search in Google Scholar

King, S. R. 2011. Examining the role of goal setting and self-monitoring on sixth grade students’ motivational beliefs and performance. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Search in Google Scholar

Larsen-Freeman, D. & L. Cameron. 2008. Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Lin, C.-Y. 2011. A multi-method design to investigate the roles of reading strategy use and reading interest in comprehension of English expository texts for eighth graders in the EFL context. College Park, MD: University of Maryland Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Search in Google Scholar

Lin, D.-S. & Y.-F. Chen. 2006. Cram school attendance and college entrance exam scores of senior high school students in Taiwan. Bulletin of Educational Research 52(4). 35–70. Search in Google Scholar

Liu, J. 2012. Does cram schooling matter? Who goes to cram schools? Evidence from Taiwan. International Journal of Educational Development 32. 46–52.10.1016/j.ijedudev.2011.01.014 Search in Google Scholar

Locke, E. A. 1996. Motivation through conscious goal setting. Applied and Preventive Psychology 5(2). 117–124.10.1016/S0962-1849(96)80005-9 Search in Google Scholar

Locke, E. A. & G. P. Latham. 1990. A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Search in Google Scholar

Locke, E. A. & G. P. Latham. 2006. New directions in goal-setting theory. Current directions in psychological science 15(5). 265–268.10.1111/j.1467-8721.2006.00449.x Search in Google Scholar

Locke, E., K. Shaw, L. Saari & G. Latham. 1981. Goal setting and task performance: 1969–1980. Psychological Bulletin 90(1). 125–152.10.1037/0033-2909.90.1.125 Search in Google Scholar

Lunenburg, F. C. 2011. Goal-setting theory of motivation. International Journal of Management, Business and Administration 15(1). 1–6. Search in Google Scholar

McCombs, B. L. & J. E. Pope. 1994. Motivating hard to reach students. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Education (MOE). 2004. The policy of English education for preschoolers (No. 0930147544). Taipei, Taiwan: Ministry of Education. Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Education (MOE). 2011a. Education in Taiwan: 2011–2012. Taipei, Taiwan: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from http://english.moe.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=12486&ctNode=814 Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Education (MOE). 2011b. Overseas students in R.O.C. Taipei, Taiwan: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from http://english.moe.gov.tw/lp.asp?CtNode=1184&CtUnit=415&BaseDSD=16&mp=1 Search in Google Scholar

Moeller, A. J., J. M. Theiler & C. Wu. 2012. Goal setting and student achievement: A longitudinal study. The Modern Language Journal 96(2). 153–169.10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01231.x Search in Google Scholar

Montalvo, F. T. & M. C. G. Torres. 2004. Self-regulated learning: Current and future directions. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology 2(1). 1–34. Search in Google Scholar

Nunnally, J. C. 1978. Psychometic theory, 2nd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill. Search in Google Scholar

Oladejo, J. 2006. Parents’ attitudes towards bilingual education policy in Taiwan. Bilingual Research Journal 30(1). 147–170. doi:10.1080/15235882.2006.10162870 Search in Google Scholar

Page-Voth, V. & S. Graham. 1999. Effects of goal setting and strategy use on the writing performance and self-efficacy of students with writing and learning problems. Journal of Educational Psychology 91. 230–240.10.1037/0022-0663.91.2.230 Search in Google Scholar

Peng, I.-N. 2002. EFL motivation and strategy use among Taiwanese senior high school learners. Taipei, Taiwan: National Taiwan Normal University Unpublished master’s thesis. Search in Google Scholar

Reynolds, B. L. & S.-L. Wang. 2014. An investigation of the role of article commendation and criticism in Taiwanese university students’ heavy BBS usage. Computers & Education 78. 210–226. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.04.021 Search in Google Scholar

Roever, C. & Y.-C. Pan. 2008. Test reviews: GEPT – General English proficiency test. Language Testing 25(3). 403–408.10.1177/0265532208090159 Search in Google Scholar

Schunk, D. H. 1990. Goal setting and self-efficiency during self regulated learning. Educational Psychologist 25. 71–86.10.1207/s15326985ep2501_6 Search in Google Scholar

Schunk, D. H. 1991. Goal setting and self-evaluation: A social cognitive perspective on self-regulation. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement, 85–113. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Search in Google Scholar

Schunk, D. H. 1994. Goal and self-evaluative influences during children’s mathematical skill acquisition. American Educational Research Journal 33(2). 359–382. Search in Google Scholar

Schunk, D. H. 1996. Self-evaluation and self-regulated learning. New York, NY: Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED403233) Search in Google Scholar

Schunk, D. H. 1997. Self-monitoring as a motivator during instruction with elementary school students. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED404035) Search in Google Scholar

Schunk, D. H. 2001. Self-regulation through goal setting. Retrieved from ERIC database Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (ED462671) Search in Google Scholar

Schunk, D. H. 2005. Self-regulated learning: The educational legacy of Paul R. Pintrich. Educational Psychologist 40(2). 85–94.10.1207/s15326985ep4002_3 Search in Google Scholar

Schunk, D. H. & J. L. Meece. 2006. Self-efficacy development in adolescence. Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents 5. 71–96. Search in Google Scholar

Schutz, P. A. 1991. Goals in self-directed behavior. Educational Psychologist 26. 55–67.10.1207/s15326985ep2601_4 Search in Google Scholar

Shih, Y.-C. 2015. The impact of extensive reading on college business majors in Taiwan. The Reading Matrix 15(1). 220–233. Retrieved from http://www.readingmatrix.com/files/12-xv3mb096.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Shih, Y.-C. & B. L. Reynolds. 2015. Teaching adolescents EFL by integrating Think-Pair-Share and reading strategy instruction: A quasi-experimental study. RELC Journal: A Journal of Language Teaching and Research 46(3). 221–235. doi:10.1177/0033688215589886 Search in Google Scholar

Su, Y.-C. 2006. EFL teachers’ perceptions of English language policy at the elementary level in Taiwan. Educational Studies 32(3). 265–283.10.1080/03055690600631218 Search in Google Scholar

Suh, Y.-M. 2011. Exploring reading strategy use in English academic reading practices in an EFL context: Case studies of four Korean college students. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Search in Google Scholar

Taki, S. 2015. Metacognitive online reading strategy use: Readers’ perceptions in L1 and L2. Journal of Research in Reading. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/1467–9817.12048 Search in Google Scholar

Tsai, C.-C. & P.-C. Kuo. 2008. Cram school students’ conceptions of learning and learning science in Taiwan. International Journal of Science Education 30(3). 353–375. doi:10.1080/09500690701191425 Search in Google Scholar

Warden, C. A. & H. J. Lin. 2000. Existence of integrative motivation in an Asian EFL setting. Foreign Language Annals 33(5). 535–547.10.1111/j.1944-9720.2000.tb01997.x Search in Google Scholar

Winograd, P. & V. C. Hare. 1988. Direct instruction of reading comprehension strategies: The nature of teacher explanation. In C. Weinstein, E. T. Goetz & P. A. Alexander (eds.), Learning and study strategies: Issues in assessment, instruction, and evaluation, 121–140. London: Academic Press. Search in Google Scholar

Wlodkowski, R. J. 1986. Motivation and teaching: A practical guide. Washington, DC: National Education Association of the United States. Search in Google Scholar

Wu, W.-H. 2015. Action research-the effects of graphic organizers on Taiwanese junior high school students’ achievement in and attitudes towards English reading. Taipei, Taiwan: National Taipei University of Technology Unpublished master’s thesis. Search in Google Scholar

Zimmerman, B. J. 2008. Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal 45(1). 166–183.10.3102/0002831207312909 Search in Google Scholar

Appendix A. English learning motivation questionnaire

Motivational intensity

  1. 1.

    If English was not taught in school, I would try to obtain lessons in English somewhere else.

  2. 2.

    When it comes to English homework, I just skim over it.

  3. 3.

    Considering how I studied English, I can honestly say that I do just enough to get along.

  4. 4.

    If my teacher wants someone to do an extra English assignment, I would definitely not volunteer.

  5. 5.

    After I get my English assignment/tests back, I always rewrite them, correcting my mistakes.

  6. 6.

    I try to use English in my daily life.

  7. 7.

    I plan to continue studying English for as long as possible.

  8. 8.

    I look for as many opportunities to use English as I can.

  9. 9.

    I try to learn English not only in the classroom but also from other sources such as radio, English TV programs, newspapers, magazines and movies.

  10. 10.

    I spend extra time to improve my English.

    Intrinsic motivation

  11. 11.

    I enjoy learning English very much.

  12. 12.

    Learning English is a hobby for me.

  13. 13.

    Learning English is a challenge that I enjoy.

  14. 14.

    I don’t enjoy learning English, but I know that learning English is important for me.

  15. 15.

    It gives me great pleasure to learn English.

    Extrinsic motivation

  16. 16.

    I want to learn English because it will broaden my view.

  17. 17.

    I want to do well in English class because it is important to show my ability to my family/friends/supervisors/others.

  18. 18.

    I learn English because I think everybody in Taiwan should be able to speak some English.

  19. 19.

    Being able to speak English will add to my social status.

  20. 20.

    I want to learn English because it is useful when traveling in other countries.

  21. 21.

    One reason I learn English is that I can meet new people and make friends with foreigners.

  22. 22.

    I am learning English to become more educated.

  23. 23.

    I want to learn English because I need to be able to read textbooks in English.

  24. 24.

    If I learn English better, I will be able to get a better job.

  25. 25.

    I want to learn English because increasing my English proficiency will have financial benefits for me.

  26. 26.

    If I can speak English, I will have a marvelous life.

  27. 27.

    Learning English will help me understand western culture.

  28. 28.

    I want to learn English because it is helpful in using the internet or the computer.

  29. 29.

    I learn English because I want to enter a good university.

    Required motivation

  30. 30.

    I learn English because it helps me to pass the entrance exam.

  31. 31.

    If there were no assignments or tests, I would not learn English at all.

  32. 32.

    To avoid being failed, I study English.

  33. 33.

    I take English classes because it is required.

  34. 34.

    I wouldn’t study English at all if the teacher did not ask us to.

  35. 35.

    The reason that I study English is to pass examinations.

Appendix B. Goal-oriented checklist

Student ID Number: ____________ Name: ____________

My English mid-term exam score goal is: _______.

My English final exam score goal is: _______.

Specify three actions to attain your goals:

Week123
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 Mid-Term Exam
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18 Final Exam

  1. Note: Please self-regulate the level of effort you have expended each week. Do this by rating the effort expended in performing the three actions (1=low effort; 10=high effort).

Appendix C. Actions performed by static and dynamic action students

Actions performed by static action students

Actions performed by static action studentsAction number total
Memorize vocabulary words27
Review class material16
Pay attention during class12
Preview class material9
Read English9
Study class content4
Watch English movies3
Read English magazines3
Take class notes3
Listen to English3
Speak English2
Listen to English songs2
Write English2
Use free time to memorize vocabulary words1
Read either English textbook, articles, or song lyrics1
Look up unknown words from the textbook1
Take a reading test twice a day1
Total99

  1. Note: Total for actions was calculated by multiplying the number of actions per student (3) by total number of students (33).

Actions performed by dynamic action students

Pay attention in class
Memorize vocabulary words
Review class material
Review class vocabulary
Listen to English songs
Ask questions about English
Review vocabulary
Watch English movies
Lookup words in a dictionary
Ask my classmates questions about English
Look up a word’s inflected and derived forms
Read English sentences
Take class notes
Review mistakes on my quizzes
Read English magazines
Preview class material
Practice specific exercises from textbook
Take self-created vocabulary exam
Memorize inflected and derived forms of class vocabulary
Preview vocabulary
Read a book about the GEPT
Review English phrases
Write English sentences
Write about an English topic
Review mistakes on my exams
Watch English news
Study verb inflections
Highlight important content in class materials
Organize new vocabulary into lists and groups
Published Online: 2018-3-3
Published in Print: 2018-3-26

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston