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An Interpretation of the Relationship between Chan-Buddhism and the State with Reference to the Monastic Code at the End of the Yuan Era

Claudia Fritz

Abstract

Based on the monastic code entitled Chixiu Baizhang qinggui (Imperial Edition of Baizhang’s Rule of Purity), this article discusses the relations between Chan-monasteries and the state during the Yuan dynasty. The first chapter shows the state’s attitude towards religion and the ranking of the different Buddhist schools as well as the liturgical ceremonies for the emperor and the State and their rewards in form of financial and land donations. The second chapter explores to what extent the state’s veto in the elections of an abbot, its financial restrictions, and limited edition of ordination certificates could have been part of a repressive policy towards Buddhism. Conclusively, the inability of the monastic management to cope with their increased social and financial responsibilities impaired the Essential Teaching and further development of Chan-Buddhism.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Griffith Foulk for his many suggestions to improve the various aspects of this study.

Bibliography

Abbreviations

T

Taishō shinshū Daizōkyō 大正新脩大藏經. [1960–62] (Shōwa 35–37 nen). Edited by Takakusu Junjirō 高楠順次郎 and Watanabe Kaigyoku 渡邊海旭. Tōkyō 東京: Taishō Issaikyō Kankōkai 大正一切經刊行會.

XZJ

Xu zangjing 續藏經. (1967). Edited by Xianggang yingyin xu zangjing weiyuanhui 香港影印續藏經委員會. Hongkong香港: Xianggang yingyin xu zangjing 香港影印續藏經.

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Published Online: 2016-3-17
Published in Print: 2016-3-1

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