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BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access October 17, 2020

Seeding the Solar System with Life: Mars, Venus, Earth, Moon, Protoplanets

  • Rhawn G. Joseph EMAIL logo , Olivier Planchon , Carl H. Gibson and Rudolph Schild
From the journal Open Astronomy


In the space of the entire universe, the only conclusive evidence of life, is found on Earth. Although the ultimate source of all life is unknown, many investigators believe Earth, Mars, and Venus may have been seeded with life when these planets, and the sun, were forming in a galactic cluster of thousands of stars and protoplanets. Yet others hypothesize that while and after becoming established members of this solar system, these worlds became contaminated with life during the heavy bombardment phase when struck by millions of life-bearing meteors, asteroids, comets and oceans of ice. Because bolide impacts may eject tons of life-bearing debris into space, and as powerful solar winds may blow upper atmospheric organisms into space, these three planets may have repeatedly exchanged living organisms for billions of years. In support of these hypotheses is evidence suggestive of stromatolites, algae, and lichens on Mars, fungi on Mars and Venus, and formations resembling fossilized acritarchs and metazoans on Mars, and fossilized impressions resembling microbial organisms on the lunar surface, and dormant microbes recovered from the interior of a lunar camera. The evidence reviewed in this report supports the interplanetary transfer hypothesis and that Earth may be seeding this solar system with life.


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Received: 2020-07-08
Accepted: 2020-08-25
Published Online: 2020-10-17

© 2020 Rhawn G. Joseph et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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