Skip to content
Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag October 17, 2018

Vertical integration approach for the intelligent Oil & Gas field

Vertikaler Integrationsansatz für das intelligente Öl- und Gasfeld
Marcelo V. García ORCID logo, Aintzane Armentia, Federico Pérez, Elisabet Estévez and Marga Marcos


The oil and gas industry envisions a smarter way of running their business where they can visualize their entire operation, call and retrieve production data effortlessly and seamlessly, collaborating across the entire enterprise to decrease production costs while increasing recovery. The so-called Intelligent Oil Field (IOF) promotes reference architectures and development approaches that improve the flexibility and efficiency of upstream and downstream process. In this sense, OPC UA provides local and remote access to plant information, allowing horizontal and vertical integration in a reliable, safe and efficient way. This article contributes an open IOF architecture for vertical integration based on cyber-physical production systems, configured under IEC 61499 and using OPC UA. Therefore, the proposal is suitable to achieve flexible manufacturing.


Die Öl- und Gasindustrie sieht eine vielversprechende Möglichkeit für ihre Produktionsabwicklung in Bereichen, in welchen sich gesamte Betriebsabläufe visualisieren, Produktionsdaten mühelos und nahtlos abrufen und auffinden lassen. Durch die Integration aller Unternehmensbereiche lassen sich Produktionskosten senken und Erträge steigern. Das so genannte Intelligent Oil Field (IOF) fördert Referenzarchitekturen und Entwicklungsansätze, die die Flexibilität und Effizienz von vor- und nachgelagerten Prozessen verbessern. In diesem Sinne bietet OPC UA lokalen und Fernzugriff auf Anlageninformationen und ermöglicht eine horizontale und vertikale Integration auf zuverlässige, sichere und effiziente Weise. In diesem Artikel wird eine offene IOF-Architektur für die vertikale Integration auf Basis von Cyber-Physical-Production-Systemen vorgestellt, die gemäß IEC 61499 und unter Verwendung von OPC UA konfiguriert wurde. Daher ist der Vorschlag geeignet, eine flexible Produktion zu erreichen.

Funding source: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad

Award Identifier / Grant number: DPI2015-68602-R

Funding source: Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea

Award Identifier / Grant number: PPG17/56

Funding source: Eusko Jaurlaritza

Award Identifier / Grant number: IT914-16

Funding source: Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación

Award Identifier / Grant number: SENESCYT-2013

Funding statement: This work was financed under project DPI2015-68602-R (MINECO/FEDER, UE), UPV/EHU under project PPG17/56, GV/EJ under recognized research group IT914-16 and Government of Ecuador through grant SENESCYT-2013.


1. A. E. Zawawi, A. El-Sayed: Integration of DCS and ESD through an OPC application for upstream Oil and Gas. In: Proc. of the 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (2012) pp. 1–5.Search in Google Scholar

2. M. Y. Aalsalem, W. Z. Khan, W. Gharibi, N. Armi: An intelligent oil and gas well monitoring system based on Internet of Things. In: Proc. of the 2017 International Conference on Radar, Antenna, Microwave, Electronics, and Telecommunications (ICRAMET) (2017) pp. 124–127.Search in Google Scholar

3. L. Ribeiro: Cyber-physical production systems’ design challenges. In: Proc. of the 2017 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) (2017) pp. 1189–1194.Search in Google Scholar

4. International Electrotechnical Commission: IEC 61499: Function blocks, Part 1–4. 2005.Search in Google Scholar

5. J. Kim, J. Lee, J. Kim, J. Yun: M2M service platforms: survey, issues, and enabling technologies. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials (2014) Vol. 16, Issue: 1, pp. 61–76.10.1109/SURV.2013.100713.00203Search in Google Scholar

6. F. Pérez, E. Irisarri, D. Orive, M. Marcos, E. Estevez: A CPPS Architecture approach for Industry 4.0. In: Proc. of the 2015 IEEE 20th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA) (2015) pp. 1–4.Search in Google Scholar

7. T. Tommila, O. Ventä, K. Koskinen: Next Generation Industrial Automation – Needs and Opportunities. In: Automation Technology Review (2001) pp. 34–41.Search in Google Scholar

8. D. Schütz, T. Aicher, B. Vogel-Heuser: Automatic generation of shop floor gateway configurations from systems modeling language. In: Proc. Of the 2017 IEEE International Systems Engineering Symposium (2017) pp. 1–8.Search in Google Scholar

9. K. Thramboulidis, F. Christoulakis: UML4IoT—A UML-based approach to exploit IoT in cyber-physical manufacturing systems. Computers in Industry (2016) Vol. 82, pp. 259–272.10.1016/j.compind.2016.05.010Search in Google Scholar

10. L. Wang, S. Keshavarzmanesh, H.-Y. Feng: Design of adaptive function blocks for dynamic assembly planning and control. Journal of Manufacturing Systems (2008) Vol. 27, Issue: 1, pp. 45–51.10.1016/j.jmsy.2008.06.003Search in Google Scholar

11. L. Wang, R. W. Brennan, S. Balasubramanian, D. H. Norrie: Realizing holonic control with function blocks. Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering (2001) Vol. 8, Issue: 1, pp. 81–93.10.3233/ICA-2001-8107Search in Google Scholar

12. C. Schwab, M. Tangermann, A. Luder, A. Kalogeras, L. Ferrarini: Mapping of IEC 61499 function blocks to automation protocols within the TORERO approach. In: Proc. of the 2004 2nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (2004) pp. 149–154.Search in Google Scholar

13. V. Vyatkin, H. M. Hanisch: Verification of distributed control systems in intelligent manufacturing. In: Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing (2003) Vol. 14, pp. 123–136.10.1023/A:1022295414523Search in Google Scholar

14. H. M. Hanisch, V. Vyatkin: Modeling and Verification of Distributed Control Systems. Proc. of the Design, Analysis, and Simulation of Distributed Systems Symposium (2005) pp. 79–85.Search in Google Scholar

15. K. Thramboulidis, C. Tranoris: An architecture for the development of function block oriented engineering support systems. In: Proc. of the 2001 IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation (2001) pp. 536–542.Search in Google Scholar

16. R. W. Brennan, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, D. H. Norrie: A reconfigurable concurrent function block model and its implementation in real-time Java. Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering (2002) Vol. 9, Issue: 3, pp. 263–279.10.3233/ICA-2002-9306Search in Google Scholar

17. S. Olsen, J. Wang, A. Ramirez-Serrano, R. W. Brennan: Contingencies-based reconfiguration of distributed factory automation. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (2005) Vol. 21, Issue: 4–5, pp. 379–390.10.1016/j.rcim.2004.11.011Search in Google Scholar

18. A. Zoitl, G. Grabmair, F. Auinger, C. Sunder: Executing real-time constrained control applications modelled in IEC 61499 with respect to dynamic reconfiguration. In: Proc. of the 2005 3rd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (2005) pp. 62–67.Search in Google Scholar

19. T. Strasser, A. Zoitl, J. H. Christensen, C. Sünder: Design and Execution Issues in IEC 61499 Distributed Automation and Control Systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews) (2011) Vol. 41, Issue: 1, pp. 41–51.10.1109/TSMCC.2010.2067210Search in Google Scholar

20. T. Strasser, F. Auinger, A. Zoitl: Development, implementation and use of an IEC 61499 function block library for embedded closed loop control. In: Proc. of the 2004 2nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (2004) pp. 594–599.Search in Google Scholar

21. S. Jain, C. Yuan, P. Ferreira: EMBench: A Rapid Prototyping Environment for Numerical Control Systems. In: Proc. of the ASME 2002 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (2002) pp. 7–13.Search in Google Scholar

22. T. Hussain, G. Frey: Developing IEC 61499 compliant distributed systems with network enabled controllers. In: Proc. of the IEEE Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (2004) pp. 507–512.Search in Google Scholar

23. L. Wang, Y. Song, Q. Gao: Designing function blocks for distributed process planning and adaptive control. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence (2009) Vol. 22, Issue: 7, pp. 1127–1138.10.1016/j.engappai.2008.11.008Search in Google Scholar

24. P. Yi, L. Xiao, Y. Zhang: Remote real-time monitoring system for oil and gas well based on wireless sensor networks. In: Proc. of the 2010 International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering (2010) pp. 2427–2429.Search in Google Scholar

25. R. Barani, V. J. lakshmi: Oil Well Monitoring and Control Based on Wireless Sensor Networks using Atmega 2560 Controller. International Journal of Computer Science & Communication Networks (2013) Vol. 3, Issue: 6, pp. 341-346.Search in Google Scholar

26. A. Ibrahim: Using ZigBee for Wireless Remote Monitoring and Control. Journal of Energy and Power Sources (2015) Vol. 2, Issue: 5, pp. 189–197.Search in Google Scholar

27. M. V. García, F. Pérez, I. Calvo, G. Morán: Building industrial CPS with the IEC 61499 standard on low-cost hardware platforms. In: Proc. of the 2014 IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA) (2014) pp. 1–4.Search in Google Scholar

28. M. V. García, F. Pérez, I. Calvo, G. Moran: Developing CPPS within IEC-61499 based on low cost devices. In: Proc. of the 2015 IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS) (2015) pp. 1–4.Search in Google Scholar

29. D. van der Linden, H. Mannaert, W. Kastner, V. Vanderputten, H. Peremans, J. Verelst: An OPC UA interface for an evolvable ISA88 control module. In: Proc. of the 2011 IEEE 16th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (2011) pp. 1–9.Search in Google Scholar

30. A. Claassen, S. Rohjans, S. Lehnhoff: Application of the OPC UA for the Smart Grid. In: Proc. of the 2011 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (2011) pp. 1–8.Search in Google Scholar

31. Eclipse: Eclipse 4diac™, (2007) [Online]. URL: in Google Scholar

Received: 2018-03-09
Accepted: 2018-07-12
Published Online: 2018-10-17
Published in Print: 2018-10-25

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston