Skip to content
Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag November 9, 2021

An approach to adhesive bond characterisation using guided acoustic waves in multi-layered plates

Ein Ansatz zur Charakterisierung von Klebeverbindungen durch geführte akustische Wellen in mehrlagigen Plattenstrukturen
Henning Zeipert, Leander Claes, Sarah Johannesmann, Yevgeniya Lugovtsova, Marcel Nicolai, Jens Prager and Bernd Henning


An approach for the non-destructive characterisation of adhesive bonds using guided ultrasonic waves is presented. Pulsed laser radiation is used to thermoacoustically excite broadband ultrasonic waves in a multi-layered sample, consisting of a metal plate adhesively joined to a polymeric layer using synthetic resin. The resulting signals are received by a purpose-built piezoelectric transducer. Varying the distance between excitation and detection yields spatio-temporal measurement data, from which the dispersive properties of the propagating waves can be inferred using a two-dimensional Fourier transform, assuming the plates to act as coupled waveguides. Coupled multi-layered waveguides show an effect referred to as mode repulsion, where the distance between certain modes in the frequency-wavenumber domain is assumed to be a measure of coupling strength. Measurements at different stages of curing of the adhesive layer are performed and evaluated. A comparison of the results shows changes in the dispersive properties, namely an increased modal bandwidth for the fully cured sample as well as an increased modal distance.


Ein Ansatz zur zerstörungsfreien Charakterisierung von Klebverbindungen mit geführten Ultraschallwellen wird vorgestellt. Breitbandige Ultraschallwellen werden in einer mehrschichtigen Probe, bestehend aus einer Metallplatte, die mit Kunstharz mit einer Polymerplatte verklebt wird, mittels gepulster Laserstrahlung thermoelastisch angeregt. Diese resultierenden Signale werden von einem piezoelektrischen Wandler empfangen. Eine Variation des Abstands zwischen Anregung und Detektion liefert Messdaten mit örtlicher und zeitlicher Auflösung, aus denen, unter der Annahme, dass die Platten als gekoppelte Wellenleiter wirken, mit Hilfe einer zweidimensionalen Fourier-Transformation auf die dispersiven Eigenschaften der sich ausbreitenden Wellen geschlossen werden kann. Gekoppelte mehrschichtige Wellenleiter zeigen einen Effekt, der als vermiedene Kreuzung bezeichnet wird, wobei angenommen wird, dass der Abstand zwischen besimmten Moden im Frequenz-Wellenzahl-Bereich ein Maß der Kopplungsstärke ist. Es werden Messungen in verschiedenen Härtungsstadien der Klebstoffschicht durchgeführt und ausgewertet. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse zeigt Veränderungen der dispersiven Eigenschaften, eine erhöhte modale Bandbreite für die vollständig ausgehärtete Probe sowie einen erhöhten modalen Abstand.

Funding source: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Award Identifier / Grant number: 449607253

Funding statement: The authors would like to thank the German Research Foundation (DFG, 10.13039/501100001659) for financial support of the research project 449607253.


1. D. Alleyne and P. Cawley. A 2-dimensional Fourier transform method for the quantitative measurement of Lamb modes. In IEEE Symposium on Ultrasonics. IEEE, 1990. 10.1109/ultsym.1990.171541.Search in Google Scholar

2. ASTM-D897. Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Adhesive Bonds. Standard, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, United States, 2008.Search in Google Scholar

3. I. Bartoli, A. Marzani, F. Di Lanza Scalea and E. Viola. Modeling wave propagation in damped waveguides of arbitrary cross-section. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 295 (3-5): 685–707, 2006. ISSN 0022460X. 10.1016/j.jsv.2006.01.021.Search in Google Scholar

4. F. Bause, H. Gravenkamp, J. Rautenberg and B. Henning. Transient modeling of ultrasonic guided waves in circular viscoelastic waveguides for inverse material characterization. Measurement Science and Technology, 26: 095602, 2015 (17pp). ISSN 0957-0233. 10.1088/0957-0233/26/9/095602.Search in Google Scholar

5. A. G. Bell. Upon the production and reproduction of sound by light. Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, 9 (34): 404–426, 1880. ISSN 2054-0698. 10.1049/jste-1.1880.0046.Search in Google Scholar

6. M. Budzik, B. Mascaro, J. Jumel, M. Castaings and M. Shanahan. Monitoring of crosslinking of a DGEBA-PAMAM adhesive in composite/aluminium bonded joint using mechanical and ultra-sound techniques. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 35: 120–128, 6 2012. 10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2012.02.009.Search in Google Scholar

7. M. Castaings. SH ultrasonic guided waves for the evaluation of interfacial adhesion. Ultrasonics, 54 (7): 1760–1775, 2014. 10.1016/j.ultras.2014.03.002.Search in Google Scholar

8. L. Claes, T. Meyer, F. Bause, J. Rautenberg and B. Henning. Determination of the material properties of polymers using laser-generated broadband ultrasound. Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems, 5 (1), 2016. 10.5194/jsss-5-187-2016.Search in Google Scholar

9. B. Ehrhart, B. Valeske and C. Bockenheimer. Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace composites: methods for testing adhesively bonded composites. In Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Polymer Matrix Composites, pages 220–237. Elsevier, 2013. 10.1533/9780857093554.2.220.Search in Google Scholar

10. H. Gravenkamp, C. Song and J. Prager. A numerical approach for the computation of dispersion relations for plate structures using the scaled boundary finite element method. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331 (11): 2543–2557, 2012. ISSN 0022460X. 10.1016/j.jsv.2012.01.029.Search in Google Scholar

11. H. Lamb. On waves in an elastic plate. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 93 (648): 114–128, 1917. ISSN 1364-5021. 10.1098/rspa.1917.0008.Search in Google Scholar

12. Y. Lugovtsova, S. Johannesmann, B. Henning and J. Prager. Analysis of Lamb wave mode repulsion and its implications to the characterisation of adhesive bonding strength. In 2019 International Congress on Ultrasonics. ASA, 2019. 10.1121/2.0001074.Search in Google Scholar

13. S. Mezil, F. Bruno, S. Raetz, J. Laurent, D. Royer and C. Prada. Investigation of interfacial stiffnesses of a tri-layer using zero-group velocity Lamb modes. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 138 (5): 3202–3209, 2015. 10.1121/1.4934958.Search in Google Scholar

14. U. Rietz, D. Lerche, S. Hielscher and U. Beck. Centrifugal adhesion testing technology (catt)- a valuable tool for strength determination. Journal of The Adhesion Society of Japan, 51 (s1): 293–297, 2015. ISSN 0916-4812. 10.11618/adhesion.51.293.Search in Google Scholar

15. S. I. Rokhlin, A. I. Lavrentyev and B. Li. Ultrasonic evaluation of environmental durability of adhesive joints. Research in Nondestructive Evaluation, 5 (2): 95–109, 3 1993. 10.1080/09349849309409545.Search in Google Scholar

16. M. Šofer, P. Ferfecki and P. Šofer. Numerical solution of Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation for real, imaginary and complex wavenumbers. MATEC Web of Conferences, 157: 08011, 2018. 10.1051/matecconf/201815708011.Search in Google Scholar

17. H. Überall, B. Hosten, M. Deschamps and A. Gérard. Repulsion of phase–velocity dispersion curves and the nature of plate vibrations. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96 (2): 908–917, 1994. ISSN 00014966. 10.1121/1.411434.Search in Google Scholar

18. H. Zeipert, L. Claes, S. Johannnesmann, M. Webersen, B. Henning, Y. Lugovtsova and J. Prager. A8.2 measurement and simulation of Lamb waves in adhesive-bonded multilayer systems. In SMSI 2021 – Sensors and Instrumentation, pages 91–92. AMA Service GmbH, Von-Münchhausen-Str. 49, 31515 Wunstorf, Germany, 5/3/2021–5/6/2021. 10.5162/SMSI2021/A8.2.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-06-24
Accepted: 2021-07-21
Published Online: 2021-11-09
Published in Print: 2021-11-25

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston