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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 30, 2021

Combined BNCT and PET for theranostics

Michał Silarski, Katarzyna Dziedzic-Kocurek and Monika Szczepanek


This short review summarizes the issue of boron distribution monitoring in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), which remains a serious drawback of this powerful oncological treatment. Here we present the monitoring methods that are presently used with particular emphasis on the positron emission tomography (PET) which has the highest potential to be used for the real-time monitoring of boron biodistribution. We discuss the possibility of using present PET scanners to determine the boron uptake in vivo before the BNCT treatment with the use of p-boronphenylalanine (BPA) labeled with 18F isotope. Several examples of preclinical studies and clinical trials performed with the use of [18F]FBPA are shown. We also discuss shortly the perspectives of using other radiotracers and boron carriers which may significantly improve the boron imaging with the use of the state-of-the-art Total-Body PET scanners providing a theranostic approach in the BNCT.

Corresponding author: Michal Silarski, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-348Cracow, Poland; and Total-Body Jagiellonian-PET Laboratory, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland, E-mail:

Funding source: SciMat Priority Research Area under the Strategic Programme Excellence Initiative at the Jagielloni-an University

Award Identifier / Grant number: U1U/P05/NO/03.47 U1U/P05/NW/03.23

Funding source: Polish National Centre for Research and Development

Award Identifier / Grant number: LIDER/17/0046/L-7/15/NCBR/2016

Funding source: Priority Research Area DigiWorld under the program Excellence Initiative-Research University at the Jagiellonian University

  1. Research funding: This work has been supported by Grants U1U/P05/NW/03.23 and U1U/P05/NO/03.47 from the SciMat Priority Research Area under the Strategic Programme Excellence Initiative at the Jagiellonian University. We acknowledge the support from the Polish National Centre for Research and Development through Grant No. LIDER/17/0046/L-7/15/NCBR/2016 and from the Priority Research Area DigiWorld under the program Excellence Initiative-Research University at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. The founding organizations played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Informed consent: Not applicable.

  5. Ethical approval: Not applicable.


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Received: 2021-09-12
Revised: 2021-11-07
Accepted: 2021-11-17
Published Online: 2021-11-30

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