Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 2, 2014

The Effect of Parental Migration on the Educational Attainment of Their Left-Behind Children in Rural China

  • Sophie Xuefei Wang EMAIL logo


About 60 million children under the age of 18 are left behind by their parents in rural China. This paper studies the effect of migrant parents on the educational attainment of their left-behind children in rural China. A theoretical model of optimal schooling in the context of parental migration is proposed. Then, reduced-form equations are estimated using probit model, instrumental variables probit model, and linear instrumental variables model. Results show that parental migration has a negative effect on children’s school enrollment. This negative effect is significant and sizable on the school enrollment of boys, but insignificant on the school enrollment of girls. The most important source of this robust negative effect on boys is the absence of fathers. Results suggest that left-behind mothers or relatives cannot fulfill fathers’ role successfully in disciplining boys and help with their educational needs.


Table 7

Effect of being in a migrant household on children’s enrollment (result from OLS and linear instrumental variables regression)

Migrant household–0.132***–0.231*–0.256**–0.019–0.266–0.270
Child characteristics
Age squared–0.013***–0.012***–0.012***–0.014***–0.013***–0.014***
Ethnic minority–0.150**–0.148**–0.149**–0.137***–0.161***–0.162***
First born child0.0140.020.0230.040.0310.035
Household characteristics
Father’s education–0.0010.0010.0010.016**0.022**0.021**
Mother’s education0.012**0.012**0.012**0.010*0.0070.006
Father in occupation 20.097***0.119***0.122***0.067*0.101**0.099**
Father in occupation 30.097*0.101**0.099**0.093**0.092*0.090*
Mother in occupation 20.074**0.085**0.086**0.0070.010.014
Mother in occupation 30.0640.073*0.074*0.0590.060.059
Log of wealth–0.006–0.008–0.0080.0120.0170.017
Log of land–0.02–0.015–0.0140.029*0.036**0.039**
# siblings–0.025–0.022–0.022–0.037*–0.036–0.042*
# adults at home–0.034**–0.056*–0.061**0.029–0.032–0.034
Village characteristics
Log of income/person0.041*0.039*0.039*0.0240.0320.029
Distance to primary school–0.032*–0.031*–0.032*–0.064***–0.062***–0.063***
Instrumental variables in first stage
Historical village migrant/labor ratio0.143***0.142***0.125***0.125***
Father’s age–0.006–0.004
Hansen J statistic0.3840.005
Kleibergen–Paap rk LM statistic13.009***11.972***10.280***9.468***
Kleibergen–Paap rk Wald F statistic16.34832.37413.04825.289
Endogeneity test statistic0.4630.7051.2811.295
Table 8

Exclusion restriction test for the instrumental variables (reduced-form results for sample of children of non-migrant parents)

Historical village migrant/labor ratio–0.001–0.002–0.008–0.055
Father’s age–0.005–0.0070.0030.004
F statistic for jointly significance0.811.93
Chi statistic for jointly significance2.391.18
p-Value of F-test0.3030.4440.5540.1478
Pseudo R20.5320.4160.4900.443
Table 9

Average marginal effect of being in a migrant household on enrollment of children aged 13–17 (result from probit regression)

Panel A: Boys
Migrant household–0.083–0.168***–0.167***–0.219***–0.099
Child characteristics
Ethnic minority–0.212**–0.205**–0.200**–0.198**–0.205**
First born child0.0570.0400.0420.0300.043
Household characteristics
Father’s education–0.006–0.009–0.010–0.008–0.008
Mother’s education0.016**0.017**0.018**0.019**0.020***
Father in occupation 20.230***0.220***0.223***0.216***
Father in occupation 30.233***0.223***0.234***0.228***
Mother in occupation 20.117**0.117**0.127**0.099*
Mother in occupation 30.0100.0140.0070.007
Log of wealth–0.016–0.013–0.011–0.026
Log of land–0.060**–0.060**–0.055**–0.056**
# siblings–0.068–0.103**–0.107**–0.101**
# siblings aged 6–17–0.125***
# siblings aged < 6–0.000
# adults at home–0.048
# young male adults at home0.080
# young female adults at home–0.023
# old male adults at home–0.165**
# old female adults at home–0.005
Parent remitted0.044
Village characteristics
Log of income/person0.064**0.0220.0200.0100.002
Distance to primary school–0.006–0.015–0.014–0.015–0.007
Pseudo R20.3150.4190.4200.4260.457
Panel B: Girls
Migrant household–0.111*–0.092–0.092–0.029–0.011
Child characteristics
Ethnic minority–0.168**–0.132*–0.129–0.122–0.145*
First born child0.114**0.094**0.093**0.107**0.110***
Household characteristics
Father’s education0.032***0.020**0.020**0.018**0.017*
Mother’s education0.0090.011*0.011*0.012**0.014**
Father in occupation 20.128**0.120**0.128**0.131**
Father in occupation 30.215***0.210***0.232***0.252***
Mother in occupation 20.0770.0800.0750.088
Mother in occupation 30.0730.0620.0710.051
Log of wealth0.049**0.050***0.047**0.047**
Log of land0.082***0.080***0.078***0.076***
# siblings–0.086***–0.071***–0.069***–0.053**
# siblings aged 6–17–0.060**
# siblings aged < 6–0.030
# adults at home0.050
# young male adults at home0.046
# young female adults at home0.124*
# old male adults at home–0.044
# old female adults at home0.040
Parent remitted0.080
Village characteristics
Log of income/person0.0430.0090.0080.0170.008
Distance to primary school–0.063***–0.047**–0.047**–0.045**–0.043**
Pseudo R20.2890.3670.3690.3750.384


Alcaraz, C., D.Chiquiar, and A.Salcedo. 2012. “Remittances, Schooling, and Child Labor in Mexico.” Journal of Development Economics97(1):15665.10.1016/j.jdeveco.2010.11.004Search in Google Scholar

Alfaro, E. C., A. J.Umana-Taylor, and M. Y.Bámaca. 2006. “The Influence of Academic Support on Latino Adolescents’ Academic Motivation.” Family Relations55(3):27991.10.1111/j.1741-3729.2006.00402.xSearch in Google Scholar

Altonji, J. G., T. E.Elder, and C. R.Taber. 2005. “Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools.” Journal of Political Economy113(1):15184.10.1086/426036Search in Google Scholar

Amuedo-Dorantes, C., and S.Pozo. 2010. “Accounting for Remittance and Migration Effects on Children’s Schooling.” World Development38(12):174759.10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.05.008Search in Google Scholar

Antman, F. M. 2011a. “International Migration and Gender Discrimination among Children Left Behind.” American Economics Review: Papers & Proceedings101(3):64549.10.1257/aer.101.3.645Search in Google Scholar

Antman, F. M. 2011b. “How Does Adult Child Migration Affect the Health of Elderly Parents Left Behind? Evidence from Mexico.” IBS Working Paper POP2011-09, University of Colorado Boulder.10.2139/ssrn.1578465Search in Google Scholar

Antman, F. M. 2012. “Gender, Educational Attainment and the Impact of Parental Migration on Children Left Behind.” Journal of Population Economics25:1187214.10.1007/s00148-012-0423-ySearch in Google Scholar

Bertrand, M., and J.Pan. 2013. “The Trouble with Boys: Social Influences and the Gender Gap in Disruptive Behavior.” Applied Economics5(1):3264.10.1257/app.5.1.32Search in Google Scholar

Björklund, A., and K. G.Salvanes. 2011. “Education and Family Background: Mechanisms and Policies.” In Handbook of the Economics of Education, edited by E. A.Hanushek, S.Machin and L.Woessmann, 3:20147.Search in Google Scholar

Blanchard, R. W., and H. B.Biller. 1971. “Father Availability and Academic Performance among Third Grade Boys.” Developmental Psychology4:3015.10.1037/h0031022Search in Google Scholar

Bryant, J. 2005. “Children of International Migrants in Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines: A Review of Evidence and Policies.” UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre Working Paper No. 2005-5, Florence, Italy.Search in Google Scholar

Cai, F., and D.Wang. 2006. “Impacts of Internal Migration on Economic Growth and Urban Development in China.” Working Paper, International Organization for Migration, New York.Search in Google Scholar

Calero, C., A. S.Bedi, and R.Sparrow. 2009. “Remittances, Liquidity Constraints and Human Capital Investments in Ecuador.” World Development37(6):114354.10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.10.006Search in Google Scholar

Camara, K. A., and G.Resnick. 1988. “Interparental Conflict and Cooperation: Factors Moderating Children’s Post-Divorce Adjustment.” In Impact of Divorce, Single Parenting, and Stepparenting on Children, edited by E. M.Hetherington and J. D.Arasteh, 16996. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Search in Google Scholar

Cardosa, E., and A. P.Souza. 2004. “The Impact of Cash Transfers on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil.” Working Papers 0407, Vanderbilt University.Search in Google Scholar

Catsambis, S. 2001. “Expanding Knowledge of Parental Involvement in Children’s Secondary Education: Connections with High Schools Seniors’ Academic Success.” Social Psychology of Education5:14977.10.1023/A:1014478001512Search in Google Scholar

Chen, X., Q.Huang, S.Rozelle, Y.Shi, and L.Zhang. 2009. “Effect of Migration on Children’s Educational Performance in Rural China.” Comparative Economic Studies51:32343.10.1057/ces.2008.44Search in Google Scholar

Chiburis, R. C., J.Das, and M.Lokshin. 2011. “A Practical Comparison of the Bivariate Probit and Linear IV Estimators.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5601, Washington.10.1596/1813-9450-5601Search in Google Scholar

Collins, W. J., and R. A.Margo. 2006. “Historical Perspectives on Racial Differences in Schooling in the United States.” In Handbook of the Economics of Education, edited by E. A.Hanushek, S.Machin and L.Woessmann, 3:10754.10.1016/S1574-0692(06)01003-8Search in Google Scholar

Desforges, C., and A.Abouchaar. 2003. “The Impact of Parental Involvement, Parental Support and Family Education on Pupil Achievement and Adjustment: A Literature Review.” British Department for Education and Skills Research Report No. 433.Search in Google Scholar

Duan, C., and G.Yang. 2008. “A Study on the Status of Rural Left-Behind Children in China.” Population Research32(3):1525.Search in Google Scholar

Edwards, A. C., and M.Ureta. 2003. “International Migration, Remittances, and Schooling: Evidence from El Salvador.” Journal of Development Economics72(2):42961.10.1016/S0304-3878(03)00115-9Search in Google Scholar

Fan, X. 2001. “Parental Involvement and Students’ Academic Achievement: A Growth Modelling Analysis.” The Journal of Experimental Education70(1):2762.10.1080/00220970109599497Search in Google Scholar

Fehrmann, P. G., T. Z.Keith, and T. M.Reimers. 1987. “Home Influence on School Learning: Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Involvement on High School Grades.” The Journal of Educational Research80(6):33037.10.1080/00220671.1987.10885778Search in Google Scholar

Feinstein, L., and J.Symons. 1999. “Attainment in Secondary School.” Oxford Economic Papers51:30021.10.1093/oep/51.2.300Search in Google Scholar

Feldman, S. S., and K. R.Wentzel. 1990. “Relations among Family Interaction Patterns, Classroom Self-Restraint, and Academic Achievement in Preadolescent Boys.” Journal of Educational Psychology82:81319.10.1037/0022-0663.82.4.813Search in Google Scholar

Feng, S., and Y.Chen. 2012. “School Type and Education of Migrant Children: Evidence from Shanghai.” China Economic Quarterly11(4):145575.Search in Google Scholar

Garg, R., C.Kauppi, J.Lewko, and D.Urajnik. 2002. “A Structural Model of Educational Aspirations.” Journal of Career Development29(2):87108.10.1177/089484530202900202Search in Google Scholar

George, R., and D.Kaplan. 1998. “A Structural Model of Parent and Teacher Influences on Science Attitudes of Eighth Graders: Evidence from NELS: 88.” Science Education82:93109.10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199801)82:1<93::AID-SCE5>3.0.CO;2-WSearch in Google Scholar

Gibson, J., D.McKenzie, and S.Stillman. 2011. “The Impacts of International Migration on Remaining Household Members: Omnibus Results From a Migration Lottery Program.” The Review of Economics and Statistics93(4):1297318.10.1162/REST_a_00129Search in Google Scholar

Gonzalez-Pienda, J. A., J. C.Nunez, S.Gonzalez-Pumariega, L.Alvarez, C.Roces, and M.Garcia. 2002. “A Structural Equation Model of Parental Involvement, Motivational and Aptitudinal Characteristics, and Academic Achievement.” The Journal of Experimental Education70(3):25787.10.1080/00220970209599509Search in Google Scholar

Hanson, G., and C.Woodruff. 2003. “Emigration and Educational Attainment in Mexico.” Unpublished Manuscript.Search in Google Scholar

Haveman, R., and B.Wolfe. 1995. “The Determinants of Children’s Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings.” Journal of Economic Literature33(4):182978.Search in Google Scholar

Hu, F. 2013. “Does Migration Benefit the Schooling of Children Left Behind? Evidence from Rural Northwest China.” Demographic Research29(2):3370.10.4054/DemRes.2013.29.2Search in Google Scholar

Izzo, C. V., R. P.Weissberg, W. J.Kasprow, and M.Fendrich. 1999. “A Longitudinal Assessment of Teacher Perceptions of Parent Involvement in Children’s Educational and School Performance.” American Journal of Community Psychology27(6):81739.10.1023/A:1022262625984Search in Google Scholar

Jampaklay, A. 2006. “Parental Absence and Children’s School Enrollment: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study in Kanchanaburi, Thailand.” Asian Population Studies2(1):93110.10.1080/17441730600700598Search in Google Scholar

Kandel, W., and G.Kao. 2001. “The Impact of Temporary Labor Migration on Mexican Children’s Educational Aspirations and Performance.” International Migration Review35(4):120531.10.1111/j.1747-7379.2001.tb00058.xSearch in Google Scholar

Kleibergen, F., and R.Paap. 2006. “Generalized Reduced Rank Tests Using the Singular-Value Decomposition.” Journal of Econometrics127:97126.10.1016/j.jeconom.2005.02.011Search in Google Scholar

Kochar, A. 2004. “Urban Influences on Rural Schooling in India.” Journal of Development Economics74:11336.10.1016/j.jdeveco.2003.12.006Search in Google Scholar

Kuhn, R. 2006. “The Effects of Fathers’ and Siblings’ Migration on Children’s Pace of Schooling in Rural Bangladesh.” Asian Population Studies2(1):6992.10.1080/17441730600700572Search in Google Scholar

Lahaie, C., J. A.Hayes, T. M.Piper, and J.Heymann. 2009. “Work and Family Divided Across Borders: The Impact of Parental Migration on Mexican Children in Transnational Families.” Community, Work and Family12(3):299312.10.1080/13668800902966315Search in Google Scholar

Lee, M. 2011. “Migration and Children’s Welfare in China: The Schooling and Health of Children Left Behind.” Journal of Developing Areas44(2):16582.10.1353/jda.0.0104Search in Google Scholar

Lee, L., and A.Park. 2010. “Parental Migration and Child Development in China.” Gansu Survey of Children and Families Working Paper, University of Pennsylvania.Search in Google Scholar

Liang, Z., and Y. P.Chen. 2004. “Migration and Gender in China: An Origin‐Destination.” Economic Development and Cultural Change52(2):42343.10.1086/380594Search in Google Scholar

Liang, Z., and Y. P.Chen. 2007. “The Educational Consequences of Migration for Children in China.” Social Science Research36(1):2847.10.1016/j.ssresearch.2005.09.003Search in Google Scholar

Liang, Z., L.Guo, and C. C.Duan. 2008. “Migration and the Well-Being of Children in China.” The Yale-China Health Journal5:2546.Search in Google Scholar

Lu, Y., and D. J.Treiman. 2011. “Migration, Remittances, and Educational Stratification among Blacks in Apartheid and Post-Apartheid South Africa.” Social Forces89(4):111943.10.1093/sf/89.4.1119Search in Google Scholar

Ma, X. 2001. “Participation in Advanced Mathematics: Do Expectation and Influence of Students, Peers, Teachers, and Parents Mater?Contemporary Educational Psychology26:13246.10.1006/ceps.2000.1050Search in Google Scholar

Mallee, H. 1995. “China’s Household Registration System under Reform.” Development and Change26(1):129.10.1111/j.1467-7660.1995.tb00541.xSearch in Google Scholar

Mansuri, G. 2006. “Migration, School Attainment and Child Labour: Evidence from Rural Pakistan.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3945, Washington.10.1596/1813-9450-3945Search in Google Scholar

Marchant, G. J., S. E.Paulson, and B. A.Rothlisberg. 2001. “Relations of Middle School Students’ Perceptions of Family and School Contexts with Academic Achievement.” Psychology in the Schools38(6):50519.10.1002/pits.1039Search in Google Scholar

Mau, W. 1997. “Parental Influences on the High School Students’ Academic Achievement: A Comparison of Asian Immigrants, Asian Americans, and White Americans.” Psychology in the Schools34(3):26777.10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199707)34:3<267::AID-PITS9>3.0.CO;2-LSearch in Google Scholar

McKenzie, D., and H.Rapoport. 2011. “Can Migration Reduce Educational Attainment? Evidence from Mexico.” Journal of Population Economics24(4):133158.10.1007/s00148-010-0316-xSearch in Google Scholar

McNeal, R. B. 1999. “Parental Involvement as Social Capital: Differential Effectiveness on Science Achievement, Truancy, and Dropping Out.” Social Forces78(1):11744.10.1093/sf/78.1.117Search in Google Scholar

McNeal, R. B. 2001. “Differential Effects of Parental Involvement on Cognitive and Behavioural Outcomes by Socioeconomic Status.” Journal of Socio–Economics30:17179.10.1016/S1053-5357(00)00100-1Search in Google Scholar

Mergo, T. 2011. “The Effects of Emigration on Source Households: Evidence from DV Lottery Migration.” Mimeo, UC Berkeley.Search in Google Scholar

Meyerhoefer, C. D., and C. J.Chen. 2011. “The Effect of Parental Labor Migration on Children’s Educational Progress in Rural China.” Review of Economics of the Household9(3):37996.10.1007/s11150-010-9105-2Search in Google Scholar

Mott, F. L. 1994. “Sons, Daughters and Fathers’ Absence: Differentials in Father–Leaving Probabilities and in Home Environments.” Journal of Family15:97128.10.1177/019251394015001005Search in Google Scholar

Paxson, C., and N.Schady. 2007. “Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting.” The Journal of Human Resources42(1):4984.10.3368/jhr.XLII.1.49Search in Google Scholar

People’s Daily Online. 2007. “Special Issue: Pay Attention to Left-Behind Children.” Accessed March 9, 2010. in Google Scholar

Rapoport, H., and F.Docquier. 2005. “The Economics of Migrants’ Remittances.” IZA DP No. 1531.10.2139/ssrn.690144Search in Google Scholar

Sacker, A., I.Schoon, and M.Bartley. 2002. “Social Inequality in Educational Achievement and Psychological Adjustment throughout Childhood: Magnitude and Mechanisms.” Social Science and Medicine55:86380.10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00228-3Search in Google Scholar

Santrock, J. W., and R.Warshak. 1979. “Father Custody and Social Development in Boys and Girls.” The Journal of Social Issues35:11225.10.1111/j.1540-4560.1979.tb00816.xSearch in Google Scholar

Save the Children. 2006. Left Behind, Left Out: The Impact on Children and Families of Mothers Migrating for Work Abroad. Sri Lanka: Save the Children.Search in Google Scholar

Schultz, T. P., 1993. “Investments in the Schooling and Health of Women and Men: Quantities and return.” Journal of Human Resources28(4):694734.10.2307/146291Search in Google Scholar

Singh, K., P. G.Bickley, T. Z.Keith, P. B.Keith, P.Trivette, and E.Anderson. 1995. “The Effects of Four Components of Parental Involvement on Eighth–Grade Student Achievement: Structural Analysis of NELS–88 Data.” School Psychology Review24(2):299317.10.1080/02796015.1995.12085769Search in Google Scholar

Staiger, D., and J. H.Stock. 1997. “Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments.” Econometrica65:55786.10.2307/2171753Search in Google Scholar

Sui-Chu, E. H., and J. D.Willms. 1996. “Effects of Parental Involvement on Eighth–Grade Achievement.” Sociology of Education69(2):12641.10.2307/2112802Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, J. E., S.Rozelle, and Brauw. 2003. “Migration and Incomes in Source Communities: A New Economics of Migration Perspective from China.” Economic Development and Cultural Change52(1):75101.10.1086/380135Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, D., 1994. “Like Father, like Son; Like Mother, like Daughter: Parental Resources and Child Height.” Journal of Human Resources29(4):950988.10.2307/146131Search in Google Scholar

Wen, M., and D.Lin. 2012. “Child Development in Rural China: Children Left Behind by Their Migrant Parents and Children of Nonmigrant Families.” Child Development83(1):12036.10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01698.xSearch in Google Scholar

Wentzel, K. R., and S. S.Feldman. 1993. “Parental Predictors of Boys’ Self-Restraint and Motivation to Achieve at School: A Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Early Adolescence13:183203.10.1177/0272431693013002004Search in Google Scholar

Yang, D. 2008. “International Migration Remittances and Household Investment: Evidence from Philippine Migrant Exchange Rate Shocks.” The Economic Journal118:591630.10.1111/j.1468-0297.2008.02134.xSearch in Google Scholar

Zhao, Y. 1999. “Labor Migration and Earnings Differences: The Case of Rural China.” Economic Development and Cultural Change47(4):76782.10.1086/452431Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, Y. 2003. “The Role of Migrant Networks in Labor Migration: The Case of China.” Contemporary Economic Policy21(4):50011.10.1093/cep/byg028Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, Q., X.Yu, X.Wang, and T.Glauben. 2012. “The Impact of Parental Migration on Children’s School Performance in Rural China.” In 2012 International Association of Agricultural Economists Triennial Conference, Unpublished Manuscript.Search in Google Scholar

  1. 1

    There is also a steam of research studying the impact of internal migration on migrant children in China (Feng and Chen 2012; Liang and Chen 2007; Liang, Guo, and Duan 2008).

  2. 2

    A survey based on 2000 census by the All-China Women’s Federation research team shows that 88.2% of all left-behind children report that they can only communicate with their migrant parents by phone; among them 53.5% cannot talk longer than 3 minutes (People’s Daily Online 2007). Furthermore, 8.7% of left-behind children never have contact with their migrant parents. About 24.2% of children with both migrant parents never or seldom talk with their adult guardians.

  3. 3

    E is the earnings net out of migration cost in the case of migration.

  4. 4

    A large literature in sociology and educational psychology suggests that parental involvement has sizable positive effect on children’s educational achievement, and recent economic studies confirm this (Fan 2001; Fehrmann, Keith, and Reimers 1987; Feinstein and Symons 1999; Garg et al. 2002; George and Kaplan 1998; Gonzalez-Pienda et al. 2002; Haveman and Wolfe 1995; Izzo et al. 1999; Ma 2001; Marchant, Paulson, and Rothlisberg 2001; Mau 1997; McNeal 2001; Paxson and Schady 2007; Sacker, Schoon, and Bartley 2002; Sui-Chu and Willms 1996).

  5. 5
  6. 6

    Significant is significant at 5% level unless otherwise stated.

  7. 7

    Table 2 shows the statistics conditional on being in a migrant household not conditional on being a migrant.

  8. 8

    For example, some might concern that father’s age may directly related to father’s age at birth of the child which might be related to health and ability of the child, and therefore affects schooling.

  9. 9

    Though the theoretical model suggests that local wage should have a negative effect on school enrollment, wage only has an insignificant trivial effect in the regression. One hundred yuan increase in wage may decrease enrollment by less than 1%. Also, including wage shrinks the sample size by about 40%, and thus, regressions with local wage are not reported.

  10. 10

    There are two cases of zero farmland size; I substitute them with 0.01 when taking log. I tried substituting them with other small positive numbers, and it does not affect the regression results.

  11. 11

    These results are available upon request.

Published Online: 2014-4-2
Published in Print: 2014-7-1

©2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin / Boston

Downloaded on 24.2.2024 from
Scroll to top button