Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 11, 2016

Antibacterial activity of a microemulsion loaded with cephalosporin

Mayson H. Alkhatib, Magda M. Aly, Ohud A. Saleh and Hana M. Gashlan
From the journal Biologia

Abstract

Microemulsions (MEs), isotropic mixture of water, oil, surfactant and most frequently cosurfactant, have gained great interest in the pharmaceutical industries and food technology due to their great potential to act as antimicrobials as well as nanocarriers for antibiotics. In this study, the antibacterial activities of a ME, composed of 23.5% Cremophor EL, 12.5% transcutol, 30% ethyl decanoate and 34% distilled water, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and its potential as a nanocarrier for cephalosporine (CEPH/ME) were assessed. The morphological structures of the ME and CEPH/ME, revealed by transmission electron microscopy, were spherical and their droplet diameters were 15.55 ± 3.17 nm and 10.56 ± 2.32 nm, respectively. ME was found to have great antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. According to the mechanism of action study of ME, free cephalosporine (CEPH) and CEPH/ME against S. aureus, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 2 mL/10 mL of nutrient broth for ME and 1 mL/10 mL of nutrient broth for both of CEPH and CEPH/ME. The ME, CEPH and CEPH/ME have affected the S. aureus through changing cell morphology, cell wall composition (sugar, protein and phosphorus), potassium leakage and cellular respiration. They enhanced the cellular permeability, decreased the hydrophobicity and viability of the bacterial cells. This study suggests that ME formula has a good potential as an antibacterial agent and as a nanocarrier for CEPH.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to express sincere appreciation to King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology for its financial support for the research project (P-S-12-0082) and King Abdulaziz University Hospital for providing cell cultures.

References

Al-Adham I.S., Al–Hmoud N.D., Khalil E., Kierans M. & Collier P.J. 2003. Microemulsions are highly effective anti–biofilm agents. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 36: 97–100.10.1046/j.1472-765X.2003.01266.xSearch in Google Scholar

Al–Adham I.S., Khalil E., Al-Hmoud N.D., Kierans M. & Collier P.J. 2000. Microemulsions are membrane–active, antimicrobial, self–preserving systems. J. Appl. Microbiol. 89: 32–39.10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01078.xSearch in Google Scholar

Alkhatib M. & Al-qaidi W. 2014. Cytotoxicity effect of docetaxel–loaded-microemulsion in A549 non–small cell lung cancer and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Int. J. Pharm. Bio Sci. 5: 300–315.Search in Google Scholar

Alkhatib M., Aly M. & Bagabas S. 2013. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of lipid nanoemulsions against Staphylococcus aureus. J. Pure Appl. Microbiol. 7 (Spl. Edn.): 259–267.Search in Google Scholar

Allaker R.P. & Ren G. 2008. Potential impact of nanotechnology on the control of infectious diseases. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 102: 1–2.10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.07.003Search in Google Scholar

Aly M. 1997. Potency of Selected Actinomycetes for Certain Antibiotic Production. Ph D.-Thesis, Section Microbiology, cooperation system between Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt and Faculty of Pharmacy, Nancy University, France, 267 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Bortoleto R.K. & Ward R.J. 1999. A stability transition at mildly acidic pH in the a–hemolysin (a–toxin) from Staphylococcus aureus. FEBS Lett. 459: 438–442.10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01246-6Search in Google Scholar

Clarke J.M., Gillings M.R., Altavilla N. & Beattie A.J. 2001. Potential problems with fluorescein diacetate assays of cell viability when testing natural products for antimicrobial activity. J. Microbiol. Methods 46: 261–267.10.1016/S0167-7012(01)00285-8Search in Google Scholar

Donovan B.W., Reuter J.D., Cao Z., Myc A., Johnson K.J. & Baker J.R. Jr. 2000. Prevention of murine influenza A virus pneumonitis by surfactant nano–emulsions. Antivir. Chem. Chemother. 11: 41–49.10.1177/095632020001100104Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Fayaz A.M., Balaji K., Girilal M., Yadav R., Kalaichelvan P.T. & Venketesan R. 2010. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their synergistic effect with antibiotics: a study against gram–positive and gram–negative bacteria. Nanomed. Nanotech. Biol. Med. 6: 103–109.10.1016/j.nano.2009.04.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Fisher J.F., Meroueh S.O. & Mobashery S. 2005. Bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics:? compelling opportunism, compelling opportunity. Chem. Rev. 105: 395–424.10.1021/cr030102iSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Hamouda T., Hayes M.M., Cao Z., Tonda R., Johnson K., Wright D.C., Brisker J. & Baker J.R. Jr. 1999. A novel surfactant nanoemulsion with broad–spectrum sporicidal activity against Bacillus species. J. Infect. Dis. 80: 1939–1949.10.1086/315124Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Hamouda T. & Baker J.R. Jr. 2000. Antimicrobial mechanism of action of surfactant lipid preparations in enteric Gramnegative bacilli. J. Appl. Microbiol. 89: 397–403.10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01127.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Hamouda T., Myc A., Donovan B., Shih A.Y., Reuter J.D. & Baker J.R. Jr. 2001. A novel surfactant nanoemulsion with a unique non–irritant topical antimicrobial activity against bacteria, enveloped viruses and fungi. Microbiol. Res. 156: 1–7.10.1078/0944-5013-00069Search in Google Scholar

Hou L., Shi Y., Zhai P. & Le G. 2007. Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by Hf-1, a novel antibacterial peptide from the larvae of the housefly Musca domestica in medium and orange juice. Food Control 18: 1350–1357.10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.03.007Search in Google Scholar

Huh A. & Kwon Y. 2011. “Nanoantibiotics”: a new paradigm for treating infectious diseases using nanomaterials in the antibiotics resistant era. J. Control. Release 156: 128–145.10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.07.002Search in Google Scholar

Li Q., Mahendra S., Lyon D.Y., Brunet L., Liga M.V., Li D. & Alvarez P.J. 2008. Antimicrobial nanomaterials for water disinfection and microbial control: potential applications and implications. Water Res. 42: 4591–4602.10.1016/j.watres.2008.08.015Search in Google Scholar

Luo P.G. & Stutzenberger F.J. 2008. Nanotechnology in the detection and control of microorganisms. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 63: 145–181.10.1016/S0065-2164(07)00004-4Search in Google Scholar

Mason T., Wilking J., Meleson K., Chang C. & Graves S. 2006. Nanoemulsions: formation, structure, and physical properties. J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 18: R635–R666.10.1088/0953-8984/18/41/R01Search in Google Scholar

Pelletier C., Bouley C., Cayuela C., Bouttier S., Bourlioux P. & Bellon–Fontaine M.N. 1997. Cell surface characteristics of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 1725–1731.10.1128/aem.63.5.1725-1731.1997Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Santos–Magalhaes N.S. & Mosqueira V.C. 2010. Nanotechnology applied to the treatment of malaria. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62: 560–575.10.1016/j.addr.2009.11.024Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Teixeira P.C., Leite G.M., Domingues R.J., Silva J., Gibbs P.A. & Ferreira J.P. 2007. Antimicrobial effects of a microemulsion and a nanoemulsion on enteric and other pathogens and biofilms. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 118: 15–19.10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.05.008Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Turnidge J.D., Ferraro M.J. & Jorgensen J.H. 2003. Susceptibility test methods: general considerations. In: Murray P.R., Baron E.J., Jorgensen J.H., Pfaller M.A. & Yolken R.H. (eds) Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th Ed. American Society of Clinical Microbiology, Washington. 1103 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Weir E., Lawlor A., Whelan A. & Regan F. 2008. The use of nanoparticles in anti–microbial materials and their characterization. Analyst 133: 835–845.10.1039/b715532hSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhang H., Shen Y., Weng P., Zhao G., Feng F. & Zheng X. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of a food–grade fully dilutable microemulsion against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 135: 211–215.10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.08.015Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhang L., Pornpattananangku D., Hu C.M. & Huang C.M. 2010. Development of nanoparticles for antimicrobial drug delivery. Curr. Med. Chem. 17: 585–594.10.2174/092986710790416290Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Abbreviations
CEPH

cephalosporine

CEPH/ME

cephalosporine-loaded microemulsion

CFU

colony-forming unit

CVs

coefficient of variations

FDA

fluorescein diacetate

ME

microemulsion

MIC

minimum inhibitory concentration

NA

nutrient agar

NB

nutrient broth

NE

nanoemulsion

SD

standard deviation

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

Received: 2015-11-19
Accepted: 2016-7-3
Published Online: 2016-8-11
Published in Print: 2016-7-1

©2016 Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences