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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 17, 2022

The State of the UBI Debate: Mapping the Arguments for and against UBI

  • Dominic Afscharian ORCID logo , Viktoriia Muliavka ORCID logo EMAIL logo , Marius S. Ostrowski ORCID logo and Lukáš Siegel
From the journal Basic Income Studies


This article provides a map of the UBI debate, structured into the main themes that guide and group the arguments on both sides. It finds that UBI’s supporters and opponents both draw on core principles of justice and freedom, focusing on need and poverty, discrimination and inequality, growth, social opportunity, individuality, and self-development. From an economic perspective, they both appeal to business concerns about efficiency, risk, flexibility, and consumption, as well as labour interests on work fulfilment, working conditions, remuneration, and bargaining. Likewise, they focus on political questions around welfare state reforms, redistribution, taxation and funding sources, democratic citizenship, and the prospects for cross-party policy coalitions. By providing an overview of the thematic pillars of the UBI debate, this article helps researchers and activists locate and orient themselves within the wider spectrum of opinion on UBI.

Corresponding author: Viktoriia Muliavka, Graduate School for Social Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-901, Warszawa, Poland, E-mail:


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Received: 2021-09-08
Accepted: 2022-05-30
Published Online: 2022-06-17

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