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BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter March 25, 2012

Genomic and non-genomic actions of estrogen: recent developments

Kotaro Azuma and Satoshi Inoue
From the journal BioMolecular Concepts


Estrogen affects transcriptional status by activating its corresponding nuclear receptor, the estrogen receptor (ER). It can also induce rapid cellular reactions within a few minutes, and this feature cannot be explained by the transcription-mediated effects of estrogen. The latter mechanisms are called ‘non-genomic actions’ of estrogen. In contrast, the former classic modes of action came to be called ‘genomic actions’. One of the recent developments of research on estrogen was the substantiation of the non-genomic actions of estrogen; these were initially observed and reported as intriguing phenomena more than 40 years ago. The interacting molecules as well as the biological significance of non-genomic actions have now been shown. In the field of genomic actions, invention and spread of new technologies, including high-throughput sequencers, promoted a comprehensive view of estrogen-mediated transcriptional regulation.

Corresponding author

Received: 2012-1-29
Accepted: 2012-2-27
Published Online: 2012-03-25
Published in Print: 2012-08-01

©2012 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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