Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 12, 2012

Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows

Bernd Hohendorff, Christian Weidermann, Philipp Pollinger, Klaus J. Burkhart and Lars Peter Müller

Abstract

The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.


Corresponding author: Bernd Hohendorff, Elbe Clinic Stade Buxtehude, Department of Handsurgery, Aesthetics and Plastic Surgery, Bremervörder Straße 111, D-21682 Stade, Germany, Phone: +49-(0) 4141-97-2897, Fax: +49-(0) 4141-97-2917

References

[1] Amtsblatt der Europäischen Gemeinschaft. Änderung der Richtlinie 74/60/EWG des Rates zur Angleichung der Rechtsvorschriften der Mitgliedstaaten über die Innenausstattung der Kraftfahrzeuge. 2000. L87/22.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Hohendorff B, Weidermann C, Burkhart KJ, Rommens PM, Prommersberger KJ, Konerding MA. Lengths, girths, and diameters of child fingers from the age of 3 to 10 years. Ann Anat 2010; 192: 156–161.10.1016/j.aanat.2010.03.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[3] Hohendorff B, Weidermann C, Pollinger P, et al. Entrapment of adult fingers between window glass and seal entry of a motor vehicle side door: an experimental study for investigation of the force at the subjective pain threshold. J Biomech 2011; 44: 2158–2161.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.05.013Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[4] Hohendorff B, Weidermann C, Pollinger P, et al. Finger injuries caused by power-operated windows of motor vehicles: an experimental cadaver study. Injury 2012; 43: 903–907.10.1016/j.injury.2011.12.013Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[5] Hohendorff B, Weidermann C, Pollinger P, Burkhart KJ, Prommersberger KJ, Müller LP. Einklemmung eines Kinderfingers: Eine experimentelle Studie zur Bestimmung der elastischen Widerstände und der Punkte des Beginns der Knochen-/Gelenkdeformierung. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 2012; 44: 1–4.10.1055/s-0031-1299768Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] Hohendorff B, Weidermann C, Pollinger P, et al. Verletzungsrisiko von Kinderfingern in automatischen Scheibenschließanlagen von Kraftfahrzeugen. Unfallchirurg 2012; 26 [Epub ahead of print], DOI: 10.1007/s00113-011-2150-3.10.1007/s00113-011-2150-3Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[7] Kent R, Stacey S, Parenteau C. Dynamic pinch tolerance of the phalanges and interphalangeal joints. Traffic Inj Prev. 2008; 9: 83–88.10.1080/15389580701697112Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[8] National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan. NCAC News 2010; Vol. 22 No. 3.Search in Google Scholar

[9] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Federal motor vehicle safety standards and regulations, standard no. 118, power-operated window, partition, and roof panel systems. Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 571.118.Search in Google Scholar

[10] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis. Not-in-traffic surveillance 2007 – highlights. DOT HS 811 085. 2009.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Paridon HM, Mauser DM. Safeguarding of pinch and shear points on power windows by limitation of the closing velocity: a pilot study. Saf Sci 2006; 44: 197–207.10.1016/j.ssci.2005.07.007Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2012-8-16
Accepted: 2012-11-26
Published Online: 2012-12-12
Published in Print: 2013-02-01

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston