Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 1, 2014

Bioartificial fabrication of regenerating blood vessel substitutes: requirements and current strategies

  • Mathias Wilhelmi , Stefan Jockenhoevel and Petra Mela EMAIL logo

Abstract

This work reviews the tremendous development in the field of vascular graft tissue engineering driven by a clear and increasing clinical need for functional vascular replacements able to grow and remodel. The different strategies to tissue engineer blood vessels are presented, from the classical approach of a living implant generated in vitro by conditioning a cell-seeded scaffold to remarkable paradigm shifts either i) toward a completely biology-driven strategy (scaffold-free approaches) or ii) the opposite tendency of cell-free scaffolds aiming at eliciting the host reaction for in situ tissue engineering. In the scaffold-based approaches emphasis is given to the material choice.


Corresponding author: Petra Mela, Department of Tissue Engineering and Textile Implants, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 20, 52072 Aachen, Germany, Phone: +49 241 80 89886, Fax: +49 241 80 23402, E-mail: ;

References

[1] Amiel GE, Komura M, Shapira O, et al. Engineering of blood vessels from acellular collagen matrices coated with human endothelial cells. Tissue Eng 2006; 12: 2355–2365.10.1089/ten.2006.12.2355Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[2] Asahara T, Murohara T, Sullivan A, et al. Isolation of putative progenitor endothelial cells for angiogenesis. Science 1997; 275: 964–967.10.1126/science.275.5302.964Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[3] Badorff C, Brandes RP, Popp R, et al. Transdifferentiation of blood-derived human adult endothelial progenitor cells into functionally active cardiomyocytes. Circulation 2003; 107: 1024–1032.10.1161/01.CIR.0000051460.85800.BBSearch in Google Scholar

[4] Badylak SF, Freytes DO, Gilbert TW. Extracellular matrix as a biological scaffold material: Structure and function. Acta Biomater 2009; 5: 1–13.10.1016/j.actbio.2008.09.013Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[5] Bar A, Dorfman SE, Fischer P, et al. The pro-angiogenic factor CCN1 enhances the re-endothelialization of biological vascularized matrices in vitro. Cardiovasc Res 2010; 85: 806–813.10.1093/cvr/cvp370Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] Boer U, Lohrenz A, Klingenberg M, Pich A, Haverich A, Wilhelmi M. The effect of detergent-based decellularization procedures on cellular proteins and immunogenicity in equine carotid artery grafts. Biomaterials 2011; 32: 9730–9737.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.09.015Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[7] Campbell JH, Efendy JL, Campbell GR. Novel vascular graft grown within recipient’s own peritoneal cavity. Circ Res 1999; 85: 1173–1178.10.1161/01.RES.85.12.1173Search in Google Scholar

[8] Cholewinski E, Dietrich M, Flanagan TC, Schmitz-Rode T, Jockenhoevel S. Tranexamic acid – an alternative to aprotinin in fibrin-based cardiovascular tissue engineering. Tissue Eng Part A 2009; 15: 3645–3653.10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0235Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[9] Condorelli G, Borello U, De Angelis L, et al. Cardiomyocytes induce endothelial cells to trans-differentiate into cardiac muscle: implications for myocardium regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98: 10733–10738.10.1073/pnas.191217898Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[10] Crapo PM, Wang Y. Physiologic compliance in engineered small-diameter arterial constructs based on an elastomeric substrate. Biomaterials 2010; 31: 1626–1635.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.11.035Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[11] Dahl SL, Koh J, Prabhakar V, Niklason LE. Decellularized native and engineered arterial scaffolds for transplantation. Cell Transplant 2003; 12: 659–666.10.3727/000000003108747136Search in Google Scholar

[12] Dahl SL, Kypson AP, Lawson JH, et al. Readily available tissue-engineered vascular grafts. Sci Transl Med 2011; 3: 68ra69.10.1126/scitranslmed.3001426Search in Google Scholar

[13] Diehm C, Kareem S, Lawall H. Epidemiology of peripheral arterial disease. Vasa 2004; 33: 183–189.10.1024/0301-1526.33.4.183Search in Google Scholar

[14] Dietrich M, Heselhaus J, Wozniak J, et al. Fibrin-based tissue engineering: comparison of different methods of autologous fibrinogen isolation. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2013; 19: 216–226.10.1089/ten.tec.2011.0473Search in Google Scholar

[15] Dong Y, Yong T, Liao S, Chan CK, Ramakrishna S. Long-term viability of coronary artery smooth muscle cells on poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffold indicates its potential for blood vessel tissue engineering. J R Soc Interface 2008; 5: 1109–1118.10.1098/rsif.2007.1354Search in Google Scholar

[16] Du F, Wang H, Zhao W, et al. Gradient nanofibrous chitosan/poly varepsilon-caprolactone scaffolds as extracellular microenvironments for vascular tissue engineering. Biomaterials 2012; 33: 762–770.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.10.037Search in Google Scholar

[17] Edelman ER. Vascular tissue engineering : designer arteries. Circ Res 1999; 85: 1115–1117.10.1161/01.RES.85.12.1115Search in Google Scholar

[18] Formichi MJ, Guidoin RG, Jausseran JM, et al. Expanded PTFE prostheses as arterial substitutes in humans: late pathological findings in 73 excised grafts. Ann Vasc Surg 1988; 2: 14–27.10.1016/S0890-5096(06)60773-5Search in Google Scholar

[19] Greisler HP, Schwarcz TH, Ellinger J, Kim DU. Dacron inhibition of arterial regenerative activities. J Vasc Surg 1986; 3: 747–756.10.1016/0741-5214(86)90039-XSearch in Google Scholar

[20] Gruene M, Pflaum M, Hess C, et al. Laser printing of three-dimensional multicellular arrays for studies of cell-cell and cell-environment interactions. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2011; 17: 973–982.10.1089/ten.tec.2011.0185Search in Google Scholar

[21] Guidoin R, Noel HP, Marois M, et al. Another look at the Sparks-Mandril arterial graft precursor for vascular repair. Pathology by scanning electron microscopy. Biomater Med Devices Artif Organs 1980; 8: 145–167.10.3109/10731198009118977Search in Google Scholar

[22] Hallin RW, Sweetman WR. The Sparks’ mandril graft. A seven year follow-up of mandril grafts placed by Charles H. Sparks and his associates. Am J Surg 1976; 132: 221–223.10.1016/0002-9610(76)90051-9Search in Google Scholar

[23] Hibino N, Duncan DR, Nalbandian A, et al. Evaluation of the use of an induced puripotent stem cell sheet for the construction of tissue-engineered vascular grafts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012; 143: 696–703.10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.06.046Search in Google Scholar

[24] Hibino N, McGillicuddy E, Matsumura G, et al. Late-term results of tissue-engineered vascular grafts in humans. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 139: 431–436, 436.e431–432.10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.09.057Search in Google Scholar

[25] Hibino N, Villalona G, Pietris N, et al. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts form neovessels that arise from regeneration of the adjacent blood vessel. FASEB J 2011; 25: 2731–2739.10.1096/fj.11-182246Search in Google Scholar

[26] Hoerstrup SP, Zund G, Sodian R, Schnell AM, Grunenfelder J, Turina MI. Tissue engineering of small caliber vascular grafts. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2001; 20: 164–169.10.1016/S1010-7940(01)00706-0Search in Google Scholar

[27] Hong Y, Ye SH, Nieponice A, Soletti L, Vorp DA, Wagner WR. A small diameter, fibrous vascular conduit generated from a poly(ester urethane)urea and phospholipid polymer blend. Biomaterials 2009; 30: 2457–2467.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.01.013Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[28] Huynh T, Abraham G, Murray J, Brockbank K, Hagen PO, Sullivan S. Remodeling of an acellular collagen graft into a physiologically responsive neovessel. Nat Biotechnol 1999; 17: 1083–1086.10.1038/15062Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[29] Jeong SI, Kim SY, Cho SK, et al. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts composed of marine collagen and PLGA fibers using pulsatile perfusion bioreactors. Biomaterials 2007; 28: 1115–1122.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.10.025Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[30] Jockenhoevel S, Chalabi K, Sachweh JS, et al. Tissue engineering: complete autologous valve conduit – a new moulding technique. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 49: 287–290.10.1055/s-2001-17807Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[31] Karnik SK, Brooke BS, Bayes-Genis A, et al. A critical role for elastin signaling in vascular morphogenesis and disease. Development 2003; 130: 411–423.10.1242/dev.00223Search in Google Scholar

[32] Kelm JM, Lorber V, Snedeker JG, et al. A novel concept for scaffold-free vessel tissue engineering: self-assembly of microtissue building blocks. J Biotechnol 2010; 148: 46–55.10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.03.002Search in Google Scholar

[33] Kim BS, Mooney DJ. Engineering smooth muscle tissue with a predefined structure. J Biomed Mater Res 1998; 41: 322–332.10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(199808)41:2<322::AID-JBM18>3.0.CO;2-MSearch in Google Scholar

[34] Koch S, Flanagan TC, Sachweh JS, et al. Fibrin-polylactide-based tissue-engineered vascular graft in the arterial circulation. Biomaterials 2010; 31: 4731–4739.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.02.051Search in Google Scholar

[35] Koenneker S, Teebken OE, Bonehie M, et al. A biological alternative to alloplastic grafts in dialysis therapy: evaluation of an autologised bioartificial haemodialysis shunt vessel in a sheep model. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2010; 40: 810–816.10.1016/j.ejvs.2010.04.023Search in Google Scholar

[36] Konig G, McAllister TN, Dusserre N, et al. Mechanical properties of completely autologous human tissue engineered blood vessels compared to human saphenous vein and mammary artery. Biomaterials 2009; 30: 1542–1550.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.11.011Search in Google Scholar

[37] L’Heureux N, Dusserre N, Konig G, et al. Human tissue-engineered blood vessels for adult arterial revascularization. Nat Med 2006; 12: 361–365.10.1038/nm1364Search in Google Scholar

[38] L’Heureux N, Germain L, Labbe R, Auger FA. In vitro construction of a human blood vessel from cultured vascular cells: a morphologic study. J Vasc Surg 1993; 17: 499–509.10.1016/0741-5214(93)90150-KSearch in Google Scholar

[39] L’Heureux N, McAllister TN, de la Fuente LM. Tissue-engineered blood vessel for adult arterial revascularization. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1451–1453.10.1056/NEJMc071536Search in Google Scholar

[40] L’Heureux N, Paquet S, Labbe R, Germain L, Auger FA. A completely biological tissue-engineered human blood vessel. FASEB J 1998; 12: 47–56.Search in Google Scholar

[41] L’Heureux N, Stoclet JC, Auger FA, Lagaud GJ, Germain L, Andriantsitohaina R. A human tissue-engineered vascular media: a new model for pharmacological studies of contractile responses. FASEB J 2001; 15: 515–524.10.1096/fj.00-0283comSearch in Google Scholar

[42] Lee KW, Stolz DB, Wang Y. Substantial expression of mature elastin in arterial constructs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108: 2705–2710.10.1073/pnas.1017834108Search in Google Scholar

[43] Lim SH, Cho SW, Park JC, et al. Tissue-engineered blood vessels with endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008; 85: 537–546.10.1002/jbm.b.30977Search in Google Scholar

[44] Long JL, Tranquillo RT. Elastic fiber production in cardiovascular tissue-equivalents. Matrix Biol 2003; 22: 339–350.10.1016/S0945-053X(03)00052-0Search in Google Scholar

[45] Makino S, Fukuda K, Miyoshi S, et al. Cardiomyocytes can be generated from marrow stromal cells in vitro. J Clin Invest 1999; 103: 697–705.10.1172/JCI5298Search in Google Scholar

[46] Matsumura G, Hibino N, Ikada Y, Kurosawa H, Shin’oka T. Successful application of tissue engineered vascular autografts: clinical experience. Biomaterials 2003; 24: 2303–2308.10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00043-7Search in Google Scholar

[47] Matsumura G, Ishihara Y, Miyagawa-Tomita S, et al. Evaluation of tissue-engineered vascular autografts. Tissue Eng 2006; 12: 3075–3083.10.1089/ten.2006.12.3075Search in Google Scholar

[48] Matsumura G, Miyagawa-Tomita S, Shin’oka T, Ikada Y, Kurosawa H. First evidence that bone marrow cells contribute to the construction of tissue-engineered vascular autografts in vivo. Circulation 2003; 108: 1729–1734.10.1161/01.CIR.0000092165.32213.61Search in Google Scholar

[49] Matsumura G, Nitta N, Matsuda S, et al. Long-term results of cell-free biodegradable scaffolds for in situ tissue-engineering vasculature: in a canine inferior vena cava model. PLoS One 2012; 7: e35760.10.1371/journal.pone.0035760Search in Google Scholar

[50] McFetridge PS, Daniel JW, Bodamyali T, Horrocks M, Chaudhuri JB. Preparation of porcine carotid arteries for vascular tissue engineering applications. J Biomed Mater Res A 2004; 70: 224–234.10.1002/jbm.a.30060Search in Google Scholar

[51] Mooney DJ, Mazzoni CL, Breuer C, et al. Stabilized polyglycolic acid fibre-based tubes for tissue engineering. Biomaterials 1996; 17: 115–124.10.1016/0142-9612(96)85756-5Search in Google Scholar

[52] Mrowczynski W, Mugnai D, de Valence S, et al. Porcine carotid artery replacement with biodegradable electrospun poly-e-caprolactone vascular prosthesis. J Vasc Surg 2014; 59: 210–219.10.1016/j.jvs.2013.03.004Search in Google Scholar

[53] Nakayama Y, Tsujinaka T. Acceleration of robust “biotube” vascular graft fabrication by in-body tissue architecture technology using a novel eosin Y-releasing mold. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2014; 102: 231–238.10.1002/jbm.b.32999Search in Google Scholar

[54] Nakayama Y, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Takamizawa K. In vivo tissue-engineered small-caliber arterial graft prosthesis consisting of autologous tissue (biotube). Cell Transplant 2004; 13: 439–449.10.3727/000000004783983828Search in Google Scholar

[55] Nieponice A, Soletti L, Guan J, et al. In vivo assessment of a tissue-engineered vascular graft combining a biodegradable elastomeric scaffold and muscle-derived stem cells in a rat model. Tissue Eng Part A 2010; 16: 1215–1223.10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0427Search in Google Scholar

[56] Niklason LE, Gao J, Abbott WM, et al. Functional arteries grown in vitro. Science 1999; 284: 489–493.10.1126/science.284.5413.489Search in Google Scholar

[57] Norotte C, Marga FS, Niklason LE, Forgacs G. Scaffold-free vascular tissue engineering using bioprinting. Biomaterials 2009; 30: 5910–5917.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.06.034Search in Google Scholar

[58] Olausson M, Patil PB, Kuna VK, et al. Transplantation of an allogeneic vein bioengineered with autologous stem cells: a proof-of-concept study. Lancet 2012; 380: 230–237.10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60633-3Search in Google Scholar

[59] Opitz F, Schenke-Layland K, Cohnert TU, et al. Tissue engineering of aortic tissue: dire consequence of suboptimal elastic fiber synthesis in vivo. Cardiovasc Res 2004; 63: 719–730.10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.05.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[60] Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, et al. Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. Nature 2001; 410: 701–705.10.1038/35070587Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[61] Patterson JT, Gilliland T, Maxfield MW, et al. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts for use in the treatment of congenital heart disease: from the bench to the clinic and back again. Regen Med 2012; 7: 409–419.10.2217/rme.12.12Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[62] Peck M, Gebhart D, Dusserre N, McAllister TN, L’Heureux N. The evolution of vascular tissue engineering and current state of the art. Cells Tissues Organs 2012; 195: 144–158.10.1159/000331406Search in Google Scholar

[63] Pektok E, Nottelet B, Tille JC, et al. Degradation and healing characteristics of small-diameter poly(epsilon-caprolactone) vascular grafts in the rat systemic arterial circulation. Circulation 2008; 118: 2563–2570.10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.795732Search in Google Scholar

[64] Pittenger MF, Mackay AM, Beck SC, et al. Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science 1999; 284: 143–147.10.1126/science.284.5411.143Search in Google Scholar

[65] Roh JD, Sawh-Martinez R, Brennan MP, et al. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts transform into mature blood vessels via an inflammation-mediated process of vascular remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107: 4669–4674.10.1073/pnas.0911465107Search in Google Scholar

[66] Rufaihah AJ, Huang NF, Jame S, et al. Endothelial cells derived from human iPSCS increase capillary density and improve perfusion in a mouse model of peripheral arterial disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011; 31: e72–e79.10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.230938Search in Google Scholar

[67] Sakai O, Kanda K, Takamizawa K, Sato T, Yaku H, Nakayama Y. Faster and stronger vascular “Biotube” graft fabrication in vivo using a novel nicotine-containing mold. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2009; 90: 412–420.10.1002/jbm.b.31300Search in Google Scholar

[68] Sandusky GE, Jr., Badylak SF, Morff RJ, Johnson WD, Lantz G. Histologic findings after in vivo placement of small intestine submucosal vascular grafts and saphenous vein grafts in the carotid artery in dogs. Am J Pathol 1992; 140: 317–324.Search in Google Scholar

[69] Schilling JA, Shurley HM, Joel W, Richter KM, White BN. Fibrocollagenous tubes structured in vivo. Morphology and biological characteristics. Arch Pathol 1961; 71: 548–553.Search in Google Scholar

[70] Schmidt D, Dijkman PE, Driessen-Mol A, et al. Minimally-invasive implantation of living tissue engineered heart valves: a comprehensive approach from autologous vascular cells to stem cells. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 56: 510–520.10.1016/j.jacc.2010.04.024Search in Google Scholar

[71] Sell SA, McClure MJ, Barnes CP, et al. Electrospun polydioxanone-elastin blends: potential for bioresorbable vascular grafts. Biomed Mater 2006; 1: 72–80.10.1088/1748-6041/1/2/004Search in Google Scholar

[72] Shell DHT, Croce MA, Cagiannos C, Jernigan TW, Edwards N, Fabian TC. Comparison of small-intestinal submucosa and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene as a vascular conduit in the presence of gram-positive contamination. Ann Surg 2005; 241: 995–1001; discussion 1001–1004.10.1097/01.sla.0000165186.79097.6cSearch in Google Scholar

[73] Shinoka T, Shum-Tim D, Ma PX, et al. Creation of viable pulmonary artery autografts through tissue engineering. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 115: 536–545; discussion 545–536.10.1016/S0022-5223(98)70315-0Search in Google Scholar

[74] Shum-Tim D, Stock U, Hrkach J, et al. Tissue engineering of autologous aorta using a new biodegradable polymer. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 68: 2298–2304; discussion 2305.10.1016/S0003-4975(99)01055-3Search in Google Scholar

[75] Skalak R, Fox C. Tissue Engineering. In: Workshop on Tissue Engineering. 1988. Granlibakken, Lake Tahoe, CA: Liss, New York, NY, USA.Search in Google Scholar

[76] Sparks CH. Autogenous grafts made to order. Ann Thorac Surg 1969; 8: 104–113.10.1016/S0003-4975(10)66217-0Search in Google Scholar

[77] Swartz DD, Russell JA, Andreadis ST. Engineering of fibrin-based functional and implantable small-diameter blood vessels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005; 288: H1451–H1460.10.1152/ajpheart.00479.2004Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[78] Syedain ZH, Meier LA, Bjork JW, Lee A, Tranquillo RT. Implantable arterial grafts from human fibroblasts and fibrin using a multi-graft pulsed flow-stretch bioreactor with noninvasive strength monitoring. Biomaterials 2011; 32: 714–722.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.09.019Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[79] Syedain ZH, Meier LA, Lahti MT, Johnson SS, Hebbel RP, Tranquillo RT, Implantation of completely biological, aligned engineered arteries pre-made from allogeneic fibroblasts in sheep model, in First international symposium on vascular tissue engineering. 2013: Leiden, The Netherlands.Search in Google Scholar

[80] Takahashi K, Yamanaka S. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell 2006; 126: 663–676.10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[81] Tamura N, Nakamura T, Terai H, et al. A new acellular vascular prosthesis as a scaffold for host tissue regeneration. Int J Artif Organs 2003; 26: 783–792.Search in Google Scholar

[82] Teebken OE, Bader A, Steinhoff G, Haverich A. Tissue engineering of vascular grafts: human cell seeding of decellularised porcine matrix. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2000; 19: 381–386.10.1053/ejvs.1999.1004Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[83] Tillman BW, Yazdani SK, Lee SJ, Geary RL, Atala A, Yoo JJ. The in vivo stability of electrospun polycaprolactone-collagen scaffolds in vascular reconstruction. Biomaterials 2009; 30: 583–588.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.10.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[84] Tiwari A, Salacinski HJ, Hamilton G, Seifalian AM. Tissue engineering of vascular bypass grafts: role of endothelial cell extraction. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2001; 21: 193–201.10.1053/ejvs.2001.1316Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[85] Tschoeke B, Flanagan TC, Cornelissen A, et al. Development of a composite degradable/nondegradable tissue-engineered vascular graft. Artif Organs 2008; 32: 800–809.10.1111/j.1525-1594.2008.00601.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[86] Tschoeke B, Flanagan TC, Koch S, et al. Tissue-engineered small-caliber vascular graft based on a novel biodegradable composite fibrin-polylactide scaffold. Tissue Eng Part A 2009; 15: 1909–1918.10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0499Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[87] Tu JV, Pashos CL, Naylor CD, et al. Use of cardiac procedures and outcomes in elderly patients with myocardial infarction in the United States and Canada. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 1500–1505.10.1056/NEJM199705223362106Search in Google Scholar

[88] Udelsman BV, Maxfield MW, Breuer CK. Tissue engineering of blood vessels in cardiovascular disease: moving towards clinical translation. Heart 2013; 99: 454–460.10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302984Search in Google Scholar

[89] Vacanti JP, Langer R. Tissue engineering: the design and fabrication of living replacement devices for surgical reconstruction and transplantation. Lancet 1999; 354 Suppl 1: SI32–SI34.10.1016/S0140-6736(99)90247-7Search in Google Scholar

[90] Wake MC, Gupta PK, Mikos AG. Fabrication of pliable biodegradable polymer foams to engineer soft tissues. Cell Transplant 1996; 5: 465–473.10.1177/096368979600500405Search in Google Scholar

[91] Wang H, Feng Y, An B, et al. Fabrication of PU/PEGMA crosslinked hybrid scaffolds by in situ UV photopolymerization favoring human endothelial cells growth for vascular tissue engineering. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2012; 23: 1499–1510.10.1007/s10856-012-4613-7Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[92] Watanabe T, Kanda K, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Yaku H, Nakayama Y. Autologous small-caliber “biotube” vascular grafts with argatroban loading: a histomorphological examination after implantation to rabbits. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2010; 92: 236–242.10.1002/jbm.b.31510Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[93] Watanabe M, Shin’oka T, Tohyama S, et al. Tissue-engineered vascular autograft: inferior vena cava replacement in a dog model. Tissue Eng 2001; 7: 429–439.10.1089/10763270152436481Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[94] Weber B, Zeisberger SM, Hoerstrup SP. Prenatally harvested cells for cardiovascular tissue engineering: fabrication of autologous implants prior to birth. Placenta 2011; 32 Suppl 4: S316–319.10.1016/j.placenta.2011.04.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[95] Weinberg CB, Bell E. A blood vessel model constructed from collagen and cultured vascular cells. Science 1986; 231: 397–400.10.1126/science.2934816Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[96] Wilhelmi MH, Mertsching H, Wilhelmi M, Leyh R, Haverich A. Role of inflammation in allogeneic and xenogeneic heart valve degeneration: immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory endothelial cell activation. J Heart Valve Dis 2003; 12: 520–526.Search in Google Scholar

[97] Wilhelmi MH, Rebe P, Leyh R, Wilhelmi M, Haverich A, Mertsching H. Role of inflammation and ischemia after implantation of xenogeneic pulmonary valve conduits: histological evaluation after 6 to 12 months in sheep. Int J Artif Organs 2003; 26: 411–420.10.1177/039139880302600507Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[98] Williamson MR, Black R, Kielty C. PCL-PU composite vascular scaffold production for vascular tissue engineering: attachment, proliferation and bioactivity of human vascular endothelial cells. Biomaterials 2006; 27: 3608–3616.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.02.025Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[99] Williamson MR, Shuttleworth A, Canfield AE, Black RA, Kielty CM. The role of endothelial cell attachment to elastic fibre molecules in the enhancement of monolayer formation and retention, and the inhibition of smooth muscle cell recruitment. Biomaterials 2007; 28: 5307–5318.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.08.019Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[100] Williamson MR, Woollard KJ, Griffiths HR, Coombes AG. Gravity spun polycaprolactone fibers for applications in vascular tissue engineering: proliferation and function of human vascular endothelial cells. Tissue Eng 2006; 12: 45–51.10.1089/ten.2006.12.45Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[101] Wu W, Allen R, Gao J, Wang Y. Artificial niche combining elastomeric substrate and platelets guides vascular differentiation of bone marrow mononuclear cells. Tissue Eng Part A 2011; 17: 1979–1992.10.1089/ten.tea.2010.0550Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[102] Wu W, Allen RA, Wang Y. Fast-degrading elastomer enables rapid remodeling of a cell-free synthetic graft into a neoartery. Nat Med 2012; 18: 1148–1153.10.1038/nm.2821Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[103] Wu X, Rabkin-Aikawa E, Guleserian KJ, et al. Tissue-engineered microvessels on three-dimensional biodegradable scaffolds using human endothelial progenitor cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004; 287: H480–H487.10.1152/ajpheart.01232.2003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[104] Wystrychowski W, Cierpka L, Zagalski K, et al. Case study: first implantation of a frozen, devitalized tissue-engineered vascular graft for urgent hemodialysis access. J Vasc Access 2011; 12: 67–70.10.5301/JVA.2011.6360Search in Google Scholar

[105] Yamanami M, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Yamamoto A, et al. Implantation study of small-caliber “biotube” vascular grafts in a rat model. J Artif Organs 2013; 16: 59–65.10.1007/s10047-012-0676-ySearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[106] Ye L, Wu X, Duan HY, et al. The in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of heparin-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) conjugate for vascular tissue engineering scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res A 2012; 100: 3251–3258.10.1002/jbm.a.34270Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[107] Yokota T, Ichikawa H, Matsumiya G, et al. In situ tissue regeneration using a novel tissue-engineered, small-caliber vascular graft without cell seeding. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 136: 900–907.10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.02.058Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[108] Zhang M, Wang K, Wang Z, Xing B, Zhao Q, Kong D. Small-diameter tissue engineered vascular graft made of electrospun PCL/lecithin blend. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2012; 23: 2639–2648.10.1007/s10856-012-4721-4Search in Google Scholar

[109] Zhao Y, Zhang S, Zhou J, et al. The development of a tissue-engineered artery using decellularized scaffold and autologous ovine mesenchymal stem cells. Biomaterials 2010; 31: 296–307.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.09.049Search in Google Scholar

[110] Zheng W, Wang Z, Song L, et al. Endothelialization and patency of RGD-functionalized vascular grafts in a rabbit carotid artery model. Biomaterials 2012; 33: 2880–2891.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.12.047Search in Google Scholar

[111] Zhou M, Liu Z, Liu C, et al. Tissue engineering of small-diameter vascular grafts by endothelial progenitor cells seeding heparin-coated decellularized scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2012; 100: 111–120.10.1002/jbm.b.31928Search in Google Scholar

[112] Zhou M, Liu Z, Wei Z, et al. Development and validation of small-diameter vascular tissue from a decellularized scaffold coated with heparin and vascular endothelial growth factor. Artif Organs 2009; 33: 230–239.10.1111/j.1525-1594.2009.00713.xSearch in Google Scholar

[113] Zippel R, Schlosser M. Antigenität von Polyestergefässprothesen. Gefässchirurgie 1999; 4: 91–95.Search in Google Scholar

[114] Zuk PA, Zhu M, Mizuno H, et al. Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Tissue Eng 2001; 7: 211–228.10.1089/107632701300062859Search in Google Scholar

[115] Zund G, Hoerstrup SP, Schoeberlein A, et al. Tissue engineering: a new approach in cardiovascular surgery: seeding of human fibroblasts followed by human endothelial cells on resorbable mesh. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1998; 13: 160–164.10.1016/S1010-7940(97)00309-6Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2013-10-18
Accepted: 2014-2-3
Published Online: 2014-3-1
Published in Print: 2014-6-1

©2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 5.2.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/bmt-2013-0112/html
Scroll Up Arrow