Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 9, 2014

Measuring facial symmetry: a perception-based approach using 3D shape and color

Philipp Berssenbrügge, Maren Lingemann-Koch, Amalia Abeler, Christoph Runte, Susanne Jung, Johannes Kleinheinz, Cornelia Denz and Dieter Dirksen

Abstract

Objective: Facial symmetry is an important factor affecting esthetics. Thus, its restoration is an essential task in maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this study is to develop an objective measure of facial asymmetry by a novel approach where both the shape and the color are taken into account and to validate its correlation with perception.

Methods: Optical three-dimensional (3D) face scans of 30 healthy adults are performed. Face-specific asymmetry indices are calculated by quantifying color differences as well as spatial distances between 3D data of a face and its mirrored copy. Subjective ratings of symmetry and attractiveness of the faces by 100 subjects are used to validate these indices.

Results: The symmetry ratings show significant correlations with color and geometric asymmetry indices. The attractiveness ratings correlate only weakly with both indices. However, the product of the indices exhibits significant correlations with both attractiveness and symmetry ratings.

Conclusion: The presented combined asymmetry index comprising shape and coloring turned out to reflect subjective perception of both facial symmetry and attractiveness. It thus promises to be a valid objective measure for facial esthetics, which could contribute, e.g., to the evaluation of surgical methods as well as to the design of craniofacial prostheses.


Corresponding author: Philipp Berssenbrügge, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials, University of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building W30, 48149 Münster, Germany, Phone: +49-251-8343753, Fax: +49-251-8347182, E-mail:

Acknowledgments

The presented study has been carried out within the frame of an interdisciplinary project in which the computer-aided construction of facial prostheses based on optically acquired data is investigated. Financial support by the Deutsche Krebshilfe (German Cancer Aid) is gratefully acknowledged.

References

[1] Bashour M. History and current concepts in the analysis of facial attractiveness. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006; 118: 741–756. Search in Google Scholar

[2] Bashour M. An objective system for measuring facial attractiveness. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006; 118: 757–774. Search in Google Scholar

[3] Baudouin J, Tiberghien G. Symmetry, averageness, and feature size in the facial attractiveness of women. Acta Psychol 2004; 117: 313–332. Search in Google Scholar

[4] Benz M, Laboureux X, Maier T, et al. The symmetry of faces. In: Proceedings of the Vision, Modeling and Visualization Conference (VMV ‘02), Erlangen, Germany, 2002: 43–50. Search in Google Scholar

[5] Berssenbrügge P, Berlin NF, Kebeck G, et al. 2D and 3D analysis methods of facial asymmetry in comparison. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2014; 42: e327–e334. Search in Google Scholar

[6] Besl PJ, McKay ND. A method for registration of 3-D shapes. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 1992; 14: 239–256. Search in Google Scholar

[7] Bischoff G, Böröcz Z, Proll C, Kleinheinz J, von Bally G, Dirksen D. Modular optical topometric sensor for 3D acquisition of human body surfaces and long-term monitoring of variations. Biomed Eng 2007; 52: 284–289. Search in Google Scholar

[8] Chatrath P, De Cordova J, Nouraei SAR, Ahmed J, Saleh HA. Objective assessment of facial asymmetry in rhinoplasty patients. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2007; 9: 184–187. Search in Google Scholar

[9] Claes P, Walters M, Shriver MD, et al. Sexual dimorphism in multiple aspects of 3D facial symmetry and asymmetry defined by spatially dense geometric morphometrics. J Anat 2012; 221: 97–114. Search in Google Scholar

[10] Claes P, Walters M, Vandermeulen D, Clement JG. Spatially-dense 3D facial asymmetry assessment in both typical and disordered growth. J Anat 2011; 219: 444–455. Search in Google Scholar

[11] Grammer K, Thornhill R. Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness and sexual selection: the role of symmetry and averageness, J Comp Psychol 1994; 108: 233–242. Search in Google Scholar

[12] Hakim SG, Aschoff HH, Jacobsen HC, Sieg P. Unilateral cleft lip/nose repair using an equal bows /straight line advancement technique – a preliminary report and postoperative symmetry-based anthropometry. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2014; 42: e39–e45. Search in Google Scholar

[13] Hunt RWG. Measuring color. 3rd ed. Kingston-upon-Thames, UK: Fountain Press 1998. Search in Google Scholar

[14] Jones BC, DeBruine LM, Little AC. The role of symmetry in attraction to average faces. Percept Psychophys 2007; 69: 1273–1277. Search in Google Scholar

[15] Kim JY, Jung HD, Jung YS, Hwang CJ, Park HS. A simple classification of facial asymmetry by TML system. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2014; 42: 313–320. Search in Google Scholar

[16] Komori M, Kawamura S, Ishihara S. Averageness or symmetry: which is more important for facial attractiveness? Acta Psychol 2009; 131: 136–142. Search in Google Scholar

[17] Little AC, Jones BC. Attraction independent of detection suggests special mechanisms for symmetry preferences in human face perception. Proc R Soc B 2006; 273: 3093–3099. Search in Google Scholar

[18] Mealey L, Bridgstock R, Townsend GC. Symmetry and perceived facial attractiveness: a monozygotic co-twin comparison. J Pers Soc Psychol 1999; 76: 151–158. Search in Google Scholar

[19] Nakamura T, Okamoto K, Maruyama T. Facial asymmetry in patients with cervicobrachial pain and headache. J Oral Rehabil 2001; 28: 1009–1014. Search in Google Scholar

[20] Perrett DI, Burt DM, Penton-Voak IS, Lee KJ, Rowland DA, Edwards R. Symmetry and human facial attractiveness. Evol Hum Behav 1999; 20: 295–307. Search in Google Scholar

[21] Runte C, Dirksen D, Deleré H, et al. Optical data acquisition for computer-assisted design of facial prostheses. Int J Prosthodont 2002; 15: 129–132. Search in Google Scholar

[22] Russell JHB, Kiddy HC, Mercer NS. The use of SymNose for quantitative assessment of lip symmetry following repair of complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2014; 42: 454–459. Search in Google Scholar

[23] Schwenzer-Zimmerer K, Chaitidis D, Berg-Boerner I, et al. Quantitative 3D soft tissue analysis of symmetry prior to and after unilateral cleft lip repair compared with non-cleft persons (performed in Cambodia). J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2008; 36: 431–438. Search in Google Scholar

[24] Springer IN, Wannicke B, Warnke PH, et al. Facial attractiveness – visual impact of symmetry increases significantly towards the midline. Ann Plast Surg 2007; 59: 156–162. Search in Google Scholar

[25] Stauber I, Vairaktaris E, Holst A, et al. Three-dimensional analysis of facial symmetry in cleft lip and palate patients using optical surface data. J Orofac Orthop 2008; 69: 268–282. Search in Google Scholar

[26] Stokes M, Anderson M, Chandrasekar S, Motta R. A standard default color space for the Internet – sRGB. Technical report, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft 1996. Available at: www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB. Search in Google Scholar

[27] The R Project for statistical computing. Available at: www.R-project.org. Search in Google Scholar

[28] Wermker K, Kleinheinz J, Jung S, Dirksen D. Soft tissue response and facial symmetry after orthognathic surgery. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2014; 42: e339–e345. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2014-3-6
Accepted: 2014-9-16
Published Online: 2014-10-9
Published in Print: 2015-2-1

©2015 by De Gruyter