Bladder cancer is likely to recur after resection. For this reason, bladder cancer survivors often undergo follow-up cystoscopy for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer recurrence. 3D modeling of the bladder could provide more reliable cystoscopic documentation by giving an overall picture of the organ and tumor positions. However, 3D reconstruction of the urinary bladder based on endoscopic images is challenging. This is due to the small field of view of the endoscope, considerable image distortion, and occlusion by urea, blood or particles. In this paper, we will demonstrate a method for the conversion of uncalibrated, monocular, endoscopic videos of the bladder into a 3D model using structure-from-motion (SfM). First of all, frames are extracted from video sequences. Distortions are then corrected in a calibration procedure. Finally, the 3D reconstruction algorithm generates a sparse surface approximation of the bladder lining based on the corrected frames. This method was tested using an endoscopic video of a phantom that mimics the rich structure of the bladder. The reconstructed 3D model covered a large part of the object, with an average reprojection error of 1.15 pixels and a relative accuracy of 99.4%.
Research funding: Authors state no funding involved.
Conflict of interest: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed consent is not applicable.
Ethical approval: The conducted research is not related to either human or animals use.
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