Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 18, 2018

A versatile perfusion bioreactor and endothelializable photo cross-linked tubes of gelatin methacryloyl as promising tools in tissue engineering

Birgit Huber, Eva Hoch, Iván Calderon, Kirsten Borchers and Petra J. Kluger


Size and function of bioartificial tissue models are still limited due to the lack of blood vessels and dynamic perfusion for nutrient supply. In this study, we evaluated the use of cytocompatible methacryl-modified gelatin for the fabrication of a hydrogel-based tube by dip-coating and subsequent photo-initiated cross-linking. The wall thickness of the tubes and the diameter were tuned by the degree of gelatin methacryl-modification and the number of dipping cycles. The dipping temperature of the gelatin solution was adjusted to achieve low viscous fluids of approximately 0.1 Pa s and was different for gelatin derivatives with different modification degrees. A versatile perfusion bioreactor for the supply of surrounding tissue models was developed, which can be adapted to several geometries and sizes of blood-vessel mimicking tubes. The manufactured bendable gelatin tubes were permeable for water and dissolved substances, like Nile Blue and serum albumin. As a proof of concept, human fibroblasts in a three-dimensional collagen tissue model were successfully supplied with nutrients via the central gelatin tube under dynamic conditions for 2 days. Moreover, the tubes could be used as scaffolds to build-up a functional and viable endothelial layer. Hence, the presented tools can contribute to solving current challenges in tissue engineering.


The authors thank Sarah Schmidt and Regina Buck for the preparation of the gelatin hydrogel tubes. Warm acknowledgments also go to Eva Conraths, Kirstin Linke and Antonia Link for their extraordinary helpful support in the labs.

  1. Author Statement

  2. Research funding: This work was supported by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program, Funder Id: 10.13039/100011102 (grant agreement no. 263416).

  3. Conflict of interest: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Informed consent: All patients gave a written agreement according to the permission of the Landesärztekammer Baden-Württemberg (F-2012-078; for normal skin from elective surgeries).

  5. Ethical approval: The research related to human use complied with all the relevant national regulations and institutional policies, was performed in accordance with the tenets of the Helsinki Declaration, and has been approved by the local Ethics Committee.


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Received: 2018-01-29
Accepted: 2018-08-06
Published Online: 2018-09-18
Published in Print: 2019-08-27

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