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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 25, 2016

Towards microstructure-cytocompatibility relationship in ultralight Mg-4Li-1Ca (LX41) alloy for degradable implant applications

Saurabh Sanjay Nene , Yuri Estrin EMAIL logo , Bhagawati Prasad Kashyap , Nithyananad Prabhu , Talal Al-Samman , Berengere J.C. Luthringer and Regine Willumeit
From the journal BioNanoMaterials


Cytocompatibility and biodegradation behaviour were investigated for a newly developed ultralight Mg-4Li-1Ca (LX41) alloy with different starting microstructures. This established the important role of microstructure in determining the pH variation, H2 evolution and amount of ions (Mg, Li, Ca) released during degradation. Thus, different thermomechanical treatments were utilised to alter the microstructure of the alloy and to evaluate its bio-response. The as-cast and two step rolled+annealed (TA30) materials showed stronger X-ray diffraction peaks for Mg- and Li-containing hydroxyapatite (HA) than the two step rolled (TSR) and the equal channel angular pressed (ECAP) materials. It was also found that the as-cast and TA30 variants of LX41 showed good cell viability of more than 100% with preferential attachment and healthier cell morphology than the TSR material. This is associated with greater content of Mg and Li ions released during alloy degradation. These act as mediators to establish contact between the cells and the substrate, and thereby promote cell attachment and proliferation. These findings suggest the existence of a strong microstructure-cytocompatibility relation for the present LX41 alloy, which can be used as an important tool for further magnesium alloy development for biological applications.

Corresponding author: Yuri Estrin, IITB-Monash Research Academy, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia; and Laboratory of Hybrid Nanostructured Materials, Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Leninsky prosp. 4, Moscow 119049, Russia, e-mail:


The authors would like to thank Mr. Ajay Suryavanshi and Prof. R. Srivastava, Department of Bioscience and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay, for their advice and support with biodegradation studies. Funding from the Department of Science and Technology, India, under FIST program SR/FST/ETII–054/2000 is acknowledged. YE would also like to acknowledge support from the Russian Ministry for Education and Science (grant #14.A12.31.0001) and the Helmholtz Association (Helmholtz International Fellow Award).

  1. Author’s statement

    Conflict of interest: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  2. Materials and methods

    Informed consent: Informed consent has been obtained from all individuals included in this study.

  3. Ethical approval: The research related to human use has been complied with all the relevant national regulations, institutional policies and in accordance the tenets of the Helsinki Declaration, and has been approved by the authors’ institutional review board or equivalent committee.


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Received: 2015-11-6
Accepted: 2016-2-2
Published Online: 2016-2-25
Published in Print: 2016-9-1

©2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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