Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 4, 2013

Isolation and bioassay screening of fungal endophytes from North Atlantic marine macroalgae

Andrew J. Flewelling, John A. Johnson and Christopher A. Gray
From the journal Botanica Marina


Endophytic fungi of marine macroalgae and the bioactive chemicals they produce have not been widely explored or documented. In this study, fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of brown, three species of red, and two species of green marine algae collected from the Shetland Islands, UK. Sixty-four distinct endophytes were isolated, 36 of which were identified to the genus or species level, with the highest diversity of isolable fungi being obtained from the green algae. Extracts of fungal tissue and spent nutrient broth were prepared from each isolate and screened for bioactivity. Antimicrobial and larvicidal assays revealed that the extracts from 24 endophytes showed antifungal activity, 25 displayed activity against Gram-positive bacteria, 20 showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria, and 11 showed larvicidal activity.

Corresponding author: Christopher A. Gray, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB, Canada E2L 4L5; and Department of Chemistry, University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB, Canada E2L 4L5

The authors would like to thank Christopher Martyniuk (UNB) for assistance in the isolation and amplification of the DNA; Thierry Chopin (UNB) for assistance with the identification of the algae; and David Gray and Alan Bourhill (NAFC Marine Centre) for research and logistic assistance in the Shetland Islands. Financial support for this research was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Discovery Grant to CAG), the Shetland Islands Economic Development Unit (research and accommodation support for AJF), and UNB (University Research Fund grant to JAJ; Vaughan Fellowship to AJF). The constructive comments provided by the anonymous reviewers of an earlier draft of this manuscript are also gratefully acknowledged.


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Received: 2012-12-13
Accepted: 2013-3-23
Published Online: 2013-05-04
Published in Print: 2013-06-01

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston