Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 5, 2015

Morphological update on Calycina marina (Pezizellaceae, Helotiales, Leotiomycetes), a new combination for Laetinaevia marina

  • Hans-Otto Baral

    Hans-Otto Baral studied Biology at the University of Tübingen, Germany. Since the 1970s he has been working on the taxonomy, pleomorphy, phylogeny, and ecology of ascomycetes, particularly inoperculate discomycetes. Over 25 years ago, he started to work on a world-wide monograph of Orbiliomycetes which is presently being finished. During the past 30 years, he has published studies in various genera of Helotiales, including the cause of the ash dieback disease. His main concern is the study of living fungal cells, called “vital taxonomy”, which he found to supply a much more reliable basis for morphology-based fungal taxonomy, and a better understanding of the function of fungal microstructures.

    and Teppo Rämä

    Teppo Rämä is mycologist and postdoctoral fellow in Marine Biodiscovery. His work with fungi started in Finland in the 2000s, and in 2014 he received his PhD at the University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway. He is interested in the diversity and biology of fungi, and especially the species that are found in the marine environment. His current research focuses on marine fungal biodiscovery and biosystematics.

    EMAIL logo
From the journal Botanica Marina

Abstract

Laetinaevia marina is a frequent ascomycetous fungus that is widely distributed on the seashores of Scandinavia and Great Britain. It grows on fronds of Fucales (Phaeophyceae) that are washed ashore and lie decaying at the high tide mark or further up on the beach. It is one of the few described marine discomycetes. In the current generic concept it is regarded as a member of Naevioideae (Dermateaceae or Mollisiaceae), while it has previously been placed in the genus Orbilia (Orbiliaceae). We studied fresh collections, in live and dead state, to provide a morphological update on the species and to elucidate its systematic placement using molecular systematics. The hemiamyloid reaction of the apical ring, the absence of croziers, and the faintly refractive vacuolar bodies of the terminal cells of living paraphyses are reported here for the first time. A thin gel sheath surrounding the ascospores was confirmed to exist. Based on morphological characters, ribosomal RNA and protein coding gene sequences published for this species here for the first time, we show that L. marina is distinct from the genera and families it was previously placed in, and propose the new combination Calycina marina, despite its erumpent, sessile, pulvinate and rather immarginate apothecia. Furthermore, we present additional observations on the ecology, phenology, and distribution of the species.


Corresponding author: Teppo Rämä, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Postbox 6050 Langnes, Tromsø, NO-9037, Norway, e-mail:
Present address: Marbio, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Postbox 6050 Langnes, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway

About the authors

Hans-Otto Baral

Hans-Otto Baral studied Biology at the University of Tübingen, Germany. Since the 1970s he has been working on the taxonomy, pleomorphy, phylogeny, and ecology of ascomycetes, particularly inoperculate discomycetes. Over 25 years ago, he started to work on a world-wide monograph of Orbiliomycetes which is presently being finished. During the past 30 years, he has published studies in various genera of Helotiales, including the cause of the ash dieback disease. His main concern is the study of living fungal cells, called “vital taxonomy”, which he found to supply a much more reliable basis for morphology-based fungal taxonomy, and a better understanding of the function of fungal microstructures.

Teppo Rämä

Teppo Rämä is mycologist and postdoctoral fellow in Marine Biodiscovery. His work with fungi started in Finland in the 2000s, and in 2014 he received his PhD at the University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway. He is interested in the diversity and biology of fungi, and especially the species that are found in the marine environment. His current research focuses on marine fungal biodiscovery and biosystematics.

Acknowledgments

Tromsø University Museum at the Arctic University of Norway and Geir H. Mathiassen provided financial support. We are grateful to E.B. Gareth Jones who kindly provided help during the fieldwork, to Ove E. Eriksson who commented an earlier version of this manuscript, and to Paul Kirk for his nomenclatural support. Guy Marson is thanked for gaining sequences of Corticifraga peltigerae, Calloria urticae and Laetinaevia carneoflavida. Ekaterina Bubnova gave us information about the distribution of Calycina marina in Northwest Russia, and Robert Barrett improved the English.

References

Baral, H.O. 1987. Lugol’s solution/IKI versus Melzer’s reagent: hemiamyloidity, a universal feature of the ascus wall. Mycotaxon29: 399–450.Search in Google Scholar

Baral, H.O. 2009. Iodine reaction in Ascomycetes: why is Lugol’s solution superior to Melzer’s reagent? http://www.invivoveritas.de. Accessed 20 October 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Benson, D.A., K. Clark, I. Karsch-Mizrachi, D.J. Lipman, J. Ostell and E.W. Sayers. 2014. GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res.42: D32–D37.10.1093/nar/gkt1030Search in Google Scholar

Darriba, D., G.L. Taboada, R. Doallo and D. Posada. 2012. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nat. Methods9: 772–772.Search in Google Scholar

Eriksson, O. 1973. Orbilia marina, an over-looked Discomycete on members of Fucales. Svensk Bot. Tidskr.67: 208–210.Search in Google Scholar

Gargas, A. and J.W. Taylor. 1992. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for amplifying and sequencing nuclear 18S rDNA from lichenized fungi. Mycologia84: 589–592.10.1080/00275514.1992.12026182Search in Google Scholar

Guindon, S. and O. Gascuel. 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol.52: 696–704.Search in Google Scholar

Hein, B. 1976. Revision der Gattung Laetinaevia Nannf. (Ascomycetes) und Neuordnung der Naevioideae. Willdenowia. Beiheft9: 3–136.Search in Google Scholar

Jaklitsch, W., H.O. Baral, R. Lücking and T. Lumbsch. 2015. Part 1/2 Ascomycota. In: (W. Frey, ed.) Syllabus of plant families. J. Cramer, Borntraeger, Stuttgart.Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, D., G.-H. Sung, N.L. Hywel-Jones, J.J. Luangsa-Ard, J.F. Bischoff, R.M. Kepler and J.W. Spatafora. 2009. Systematics and evolution of the genus Torrubiella (Hypocreales, Ascomycota). Mycol. Res.113: 279–289.10.1016/j.mycres.2008.09.008Search in Google Scholar

Jones, E.B.G., J. Sakayaroj, S. Suetrong, S. Somrithipol and K.-L. Pang. 2009. Classification of marine Ascomycota, anamorphic taxa and Basidiomycota. Fungal Divers.35: 1–187.Search in Google Scholar

Katoh, K. and D.M. Standley. 2013. MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Mol. Biol. Evol.30: 772–780.10.1093/molbev/mst010Search in Google Scholar

Kirk, P. and B. Spooner. 1984. An account of the fungi of Arran, Gigha and Kintyre. Kew Bull.38: 503–597.Search in Google Scholar

Kohlmeyer, J. and E. Kohlmeyer. 1979. Marine Mycology: The Higher Fungi. Academic Press, New York, NY. pp. 690.Search in Google Scholar

Matheny, P.B., Y.J. Liu, J.F. Ammirati and B.D. Hall. 2002. Using RPB1 sequences to improve phylogenetic inference among mushrooms (Inocybe, Agaricales). Am. J. Bot. 89: 688–698.10.3732/ajb.89.4.688Search in Google Scholar

Murray, M.G. and W.F. Thompson. 1980. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nuc. Acids Res.8: 4321–4325.10.1093/nar/8.19.4321Search in Google Scholar

Mysterud, I., K. Høiland, G. Koller and Ø. Stensrud. 2007. Molecular characterization and evaluation of plant litter-associated fungi from the spring “grazing corridor” of a sheep herd vulnerable to alveld disease. Mycopathologia164: 201–215.10.1007/s11046-007-9045-4Search in Google Scholar

Nannfeldt, J.A. 1932. Studien über die Morphologie und Systematik der nicht-lichenisierten inoperculaten Discomyceten. Nova acta Regiae societatis scientiarum Upsaliensis. Ser. 4.8 (2): 1–368.Search in Google Scholar

Pang, K.-L., S.Y. Guo, S.A. Alias, J. Hafellner and E.B.G. Jones. 2014. A new species of marine Dactylospora and its phylogenetic affinities within the Eurotiomycetes, Ascomycota. Bot. Mar. 57: 315–321.10.1515/bot-2014-0025Search in Google Scholar

Rambaut, A., M. A. Suchard, D. Xie and A. Drummond. 2014. Tracer v1.6, Available from http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/Tracer. Accessed 20 October 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Rehner, S.A. and G.J. Samuels. 1994. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Gliocladium analysed from nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycol. Res.98: 625–634.10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80409-7Search in Google Scholar

Ronquist, F., M. Teslenko, P. van der Mark, D.L. Ayres, A. Darling, S. Höhna, B. Larget, L. Liu, M.A. Suchard and J.P. Huelsenbeck. 2012. MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space. Syst. Biol.61: 539–542.10.1093/sysbio/sys029Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Schoch, C.L., K.A. Seifert, S. Huhndorf, V. Robert, J.L. Spouge, C.A. Levesque, W. Chen and Fungal Barcode Consortium. 2012. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 109: 6241–6246.10.1073/pnas.1207508109Search in Google Scholar

Smith, A.L. 1909. New or rare microfungi. Trans. Br. Mycol Soc.3: 111–124, pl. 6.Search in Google Scholar

Stiller, J.W. and B.D. Hall. 1997. The origin of red algae: Implications for plastid evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94: 4520–4525.10.1073/pnas.94.9.4520Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Suetrong, S. and E.B.G. Jones. 2006. Marine discomycetes: A review. Indian J. Mar. Sci.35: 291–296.Search in Google Scholar

Tchesunov, A., N. Kaljakina and E. Bubnova. 2008. A Catalogue of Biota of the White Sea Biological Station of the Moscow State University (Katalog bioty Belomorskoy biologicheskoy stantsii MGU). KMK Scientific Press Ltd, Moscow. pp. 384.Search in Google Scholar

Triebel, D. and H.O. Baral. 1996. Notes on the ascus types in Crocicreas (Leotiales, Ascomycetes) with a characterization of selected taxa. Sendtnera3: 199–218.Search in Google Scholar

Vilgalys, R. and M. Hester. 1990. Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. J. Bacteriol.172: 4238–4246.10.1128/jb.172.8.4238-4246.1990Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

White, T.J., T. Bruns, S. Lee and J. Taylor. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: (M.A. Innis, D.H. Gelfand, J.J. Sninsky and T. J. White, eds) PCR Protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. pp. 315–322.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2015-6-19
Accepted: 2015-10-6
Published Online: 2015-11-5
Published in Print: 2015-12-1

©2015 by De Gruyter

Downloaded on 7.2.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/bot-2015-0049/html
Scroll Up Arrow