Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 30, 2017

Phytohormones in red seaweeds: a technical review of methods for analysis and a consideration of genomic data

Izumi C. Mori, Yoko Ikeda, Takakazu Matsuura, Takashi Hirayama and Koji Mikami
From the journal Botanica Marina


Emerging studies suggest that seaweeds contain phytohormones; however, their chemical entities, biosynthetic pathways, signal transduction mechanisms, and physiological roles are poorly understood. Until recently, it was difficult to conduct comprehensive analysis of phytohormones in seaweeds because of the interfering effects of cellular constituents on fine quantification. In this review, we discuss the details of the latest method allowing simultaneous profiling of multiple phytohormones in red seaweeds, while avoiding the effects of cellular factors. Recent studies have confirmed the presence of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP), (+)-abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid, but not of gibberellins and jasmonate, in Pyropia yezoensis and Bangia fuscopurpurea. In addition, an in silico genome-wide homology search indicated that red seaweeds synthesize iP and ABA via pathways similar to those in terrestrial plants, although genes homologous to those involved in IAA biosynthesis in terrestrial plants were not found, suggesting the epiphytic origin of IAA. It is noteworthy that these seaweeds also lack homologues of known factors involved in the perception and signal transduction of IAA, iP, and ABA. Thus, the modes of action of these phytohormones in red seaweeds are unexpectedly dissimilar to those in terrestrial plants.


The authors are grateful for support received from the Joint Research Program at the Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, and the Japan Advanced Plant Science Network. This work was supported in part by a KAKENHI grant-in-aid for the support of scientific research (no. 15H0453905) and the Ohara Foundation for Agricultural Research.


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Received: 2016-6-20
Accepted: 2017-2-23
Published Online: 2017-3-30
Published in Print: 2017-4-24

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston