Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 10, 2017

In situ observations of Akashiwo sanguinea (Dinophyceae) displaying life cycle stages during blooms in a subtropical estuary

Susan Badylak, Edward J. Phlips, Ashley Loren Mathews and Karen Kelley
From the journal Botanica Marina


This study reports on the harmful algal bloom (HAB) dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in the upper, mid and lower Caloosahatchee estuary, Florida during monthly sample events at four sites from February 2009 through February 2010. Akashiwo sanguinea cells were microscopically quantified throughout the course of the study and scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm certain life stage observations. Water temperature and salinity were recorded for each collection. A rare observation of a major sexual reproduction event was made from water samples collected in situ during February 2009. This sample event included 600 cells ml−1 of small cells, 25 cells ml−1 of perpendicularly connected cells in the fusing position, 17 cells ml−1 of planozygotes, cells surrounded by mucoid halos and asexual pairs. Structures consistent with a fertilization tube in the apical or sulcal regions of the small cells were also observed. A bloom of A. sanguinea vegetative cells was observed in the upper estuary in May with cell densities near 700 cells ml−1 and again in June with densities greater than 300 cells ml−1. Results provide insights into environmental conditions during the occurrence of reproduction stages and vegetative cell blooms of A. sanguinea.


The research was partially funded by the South Florida Water Management District, W. Palm Beach, Florida and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.


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Received: 2017-4-4
Accepted: 2017-8-24
Published Online: 2017-10-10
Published in Print: 2017-11-27

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