Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 7, 2018

The rise of seaweed gastronomy: phycogastronomy

Ole G. Mouritsen, Prannie Rhatigan and José Lucas Pérez-Lloréns
From the journal Botanica Marina

Abstract

Seaweeds enjoy a rich history as human foodstuff for populations around the world. The omnipresence of seaweeds in all climate belts, the great biodiversity, their bounty of important nutrients, combined with the fact that most seaweeds are edible, suggest that seaweeds have played an important role as human food during human evolution. Seaweeds have served as a cheap and easily accessible crop in the daily fare for coastal populations. In many food cultures, in particular in Southeast Asia, seaweeds have for millennia been considered as valuable sea vegetables. In recent years, regional seaweed cuisines around the world have been rediscovered and reinvigorated, and many chefs up to the top level have initiated, often in collaboration with scientists, a trend towards a new seaweed gastronomy (phycogastronomy).

Acknowledgments

The work by OGM was supported by Nordea-fonden via a centre grant to the national Danish centre Taste for Life. JLPLL acknowledges the support of the Junta de Andalucia Excellence Project Ealga (RNM-1235).

  1. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding this article.

References

Abbott, I.A. 1978. The uses of seaweed as food in Hawaii. Econ. Bot.32: 409–412. Search in Google Scholar

Abbott, I.A. and E.H. Williamson. 1974. Limu. An ethnobotanical study of some edible Hawaiian seaweeds. 2nd edition. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawaii. pp. 21. Search in Google Scholar

Arasaki, S. and T. Arasaki. 1983. Low Calorie, High Nutrition Vegetables From the Sea. Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo. pp. 196. Search in Google Scholar

Arzel, P. and O. Barbaroux. 2003. Les Algues – Produits, Saveurs et Santé de la Mer. Libris, Paris. pp. 103. Search in Google Scholar

Babel, K. 2005. Seafood Sense. The Truth About Seafood Nutrition & Safety. Basic Health Publ., Laguna Beach, California. pp. 160. Search in Google Scholar

Barham, P., L.H. Skibsted, W.L.P. Bredie, M.B. Frøst, P. Møller, J. Risbo, P. Snitkjær and L.M. Mortensen. 2010. Molecular gastronomy: a new emerging scientific discipline. Chem. Rev. 110: 2313–2365. Search in Google Scholar

Bartual, A. and J.L. Pérez-Lloréns. 2016. Taller de ficococina en los campus científicos de verano (CCV)-Edición 2016. Algas 52: 52–53. Search in Google Scholar

Bird, F. 2015. Seaweed in the Kitchen. Prospect Books, London. pp. 176. Search in Google Scholar

Blumenthal, H., P. Barbot, N. Matsushisa and K. Mikuni. 2009. Dashi and Umami: The Heart of Japanese Cuisine. Cross Media Ltd., London. pp. 162. Search in Google Scholar

Bradford, P. and M. Bradford. 1986. Cooking with Sea Vegetables. Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont. pp. 144. Search in Google Scholar

Brooker, S., R. Cambie and R. Cooper. 1981. New Zealand Medicinal Plants. Heinemann, Auckland. pp. 117. Search in Google Scholar

Brown, E.M., P.J. Allsopp, P.J. Magee, C.I.R. Gill, S. Nitecki, C.R. Strain and E.M. McSorley. 2014. Seaweed and human health. Nutr. Rev. 72: 205–216. Search in Google Scholar

Brunner, A. 2016. Seaweed: The Secret Key to Vibrant Health. Modern Books, London. pp. 70. Search in Google Scholar

Buschmann, A.H., C. Camus, J. Infante, A. Neori, A. Israel, M.C. Hernández-González, S.V. Pereda, J.L. Gomez-Pinchetti, A. Golberg, N. Tadmor-Shalev and A.T. Critchley. 2017. Seaweed production: overview of the global state of exploitation, farming and emerging research activity. Eur. J. Phycol. 52: 391–406. Search in Google Scholar

Castro, O. and E. Xatruch. 2011. Cocina con algas by Porto-Muiños. Editorial Aula de cocina de Porto Muiños, La Coruña. pp. 160. Search in Google Scholar

Chamas, B. and A. Caparrós. 2017. El poder del alimento. Cocina Vital: Alimentación con sentido y con arte para todos. Grijalbo, Barcelona. pp. 224. Search in Google Scholar

Chapman, V.J. 1980. Seaweeds and their uses. Springer, New York. pp. 327. Search in Google Scholar

Chavannes, C.D. 2002. Algues. Légumes de la mer La Plage Ed., Sète. pp. 128. Search in Google Scholar

Chopin, T. 2017. Challenges of moving Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture along the R&D and commercialization continuum in the western world. J. Ocean Techn. 12: 34–47. Search in Google Scholar

Christian, F. 2013. Eat the Beach: A Guide to the Edible Seashore. Practical Inspiration Publishing, Stockport. pp. 80. Search in Google Scholar

Coisel, E. 2003. Ma cuisine aux algues. Solar, Paris. pp. 192. Search in Google Scholar

Cooksley, V.G. 2007. Seaweed. Nature’s Secret to Balancing Your Metabolism, Fighting Disease, and Revitalizing Body & Soul. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, New York. pp. 224. Search in Google Scholar

Cornish, M.L., A.T. Critchley and O.G. Mouritsen. 2015. A role for dietary macroalgae in the amelioration of certain risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Phycologia 54: 649–666. Search in Google Scholar

Cornish, M.L., A.T. Critchley and O.G. Mouritsen. 2017. Consumption of seaweeds and the human brain. J. Appl. Phycol. 29: 2377–2398. Search in Google Scholar

Davies, G. 2016. The Seaweed Cookbook (Flavours of Wales). Graffeg Ltd., Carmarthenshire, Wales. pp. 48. Search in Google Scholar

Delacroix, J-M. 2006. Les algues alimentaires: Riches légumes de la mer. Éditions Medicis, Paris. pp. 125. Search in Google Scholar

Dhargalkar, V.K. and N. Pereira. 2005. Seaweed: promising plant of the millennium. Sci. Cult. 71: 60–66. Search in Google Scholar

Dillehay, T.D., C. Ramírez, M. Pino, M.B. Collins, J. Rossen and J.D. Pino-Navarro. 2008. Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine, and the peopling of South America. Science 320: 784–786. Search in Google Scholar

Dougoud, C. 2009a. Algues- Légumes de la mer. Éditions La Plage, Paris. pp. 128. Search in Google Scholar

Dougoud, C. 2009b. Algues marines – dégustez les bienfaits de la mer! Anagramme éditions, Croissy sur siene, Paris. pp. 72. Search in Google Scholar

Dougoud, C. 2013. Les algues de A à Z: Avec 50 recettes faciles et savoureuses! Éditions Jouvence, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois. pp. 221. Search in Google Scholar

Dougoud, C. 2017. Algues faciles: Pour enrichir votre alimentation. Éditions Jouvence, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois. pp. 160. Search in Google Scholar

Dougoud, C., G. Legrain-Laval and B. Legrain. 2010. Algues –Vertus et bienfaits. Anagramme éditions, Croissy sur siene, Paris. pp. 216. Search in Google Scholar

Dubin, M.D. and S. Ross. 2008. Seaweed, Salmon, and Manzanita Cider: a California Indian Feast. Heyday, Berkeley, California. pp. 144. Search in Google Scholar

Druehl, L.D. 2016. Pacific seaweeds. Harbour Publ., Madeira Park, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 320. Search in Google Scholar

Ellis, L. 1999. Seaweed. A Cook’s guide. Fisher Books, Tuscon, Arizona. pp. 100. Search in Google Scholar

Erhart, S. and L. Cerier. 2001. Sea vegetable celebration. Book Publishing Company, Summertown, Tennessee. pp. 128. Search in Google Scholar

Erlandson, J.M., M.H. Graham, B.J. Bourque, D. Corbett, J.A. Estes and R.S. Steneck. 2007. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas. J. Island Coast. Arch. 2: 161–174. Search in Google Scholar

FAO. 2016. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Rome. pp. 200. Search in Google Scholar

Fryer, L. and D. Simmons. 2005. Food power from the sea. The seaweed story. Acres USA, Austin, Texas. pp. 220. Search in Google Scholar

Fujii, M. 2005. The Enlightened Kitchen. Kodansha International, Tokyo. pp. 107. Search in Google Scholar

Garza, D. and D.A. Garza. 2012. Common Edible Seaweeds in the Gulf of Alaska. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks. pp. 61. Search in Google Scholar

Gifford, I. 1853. The marine Botanist; an introduction to the study of the British seaweeds. Longman & Co, London. pp. 357. Search in Google Scholar

Greville, R.K. 1830. Algae Britannicae. MacLachlan & Stewart, Edinburgh. Search in Google Scholar

Gusman, J. and A. Ingrum. 2003. Vegetables from the sea. Everyday cooking with sea greens. Harper Collins Publishers, New York. pp. 144. Search in Google Scholar

Hampikian, S., A. Geers and O. Degorce. 2013. Les algues, nos alliées santé et beauté: 45 soins et recettes gourmands. Éditions Terre Vivante, Grenoble. pp. 142. Search in Google Scholar

Hara, E.H. 1990. Algues dans la cuisine macrobiotique. Guy Trédaniel éditeur, Paris. pp. 104. Search in Google Scholar

Harbo, R.M. 1988. The edible seashore. Pacific shores cookbook & guide. Hancock House Publ. Ltd., Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 62. Search in Google Scholar

Harrison, M. 2015. Cooking with Seaweed. 101+ ways. Lulu.com. pp. 138. Search in Google Scholar

Hartung, G. 2017. Osez les algues marines dans votre assiette. BoD-Books on Demand, Norderstedt, Hamburg. pp. 72. Search in Google Scholar

Hogue, K. 1922. Algen. In de Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch Indie. Dept. Landb. Nijverh. & Hand. Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 1: 33–38. Search in Google Scholar

Holdt, S. and S. Kraan. 2011. Bioactive compounds in seaweed; functional food applications and legislation. J. Appl. Phycol. 23: 543–597. Search in Google Scholar

Huston, F. and X. Milne. 2008. Seaweed and eat it. A family foraging and cooking adventure. Virgin Books Ltd., London. pp. 192. Search in Google Scholar

Ibáñez, E. and M. Guerrero. 2017. Las algas que comemos. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid. pp. 112. Search in Google Scholar

Ikeda, I. 2002. New seasonings. Chem. Senses 27: 847–849. [Translation from the original article in J. Chem. Soc. Japan 30: 820–836 (1909)]. Search in Google Scholar

Japanese Culinary Academy. 2016. Flavor and seasonings: Dashi, Umami, and fermented foods. Shuhari Initiative Ltd., Tokyo. pp. 184. Search in Google Scholar

Kilinç, B., S. Cirik, G. Turan, H. Tekogul and E. Koru. 2013. Seaweeds for food and Industrial applications, food industry. In: (I. Muzzalupo, ed) Food industry. InTech., Rijeka. pp. 735–748. Search in Google Scholar

Kreischer, L. and M. Schuttelaar. 2016. Ocean Greens: Explore the World of Edible Seaweed and Sea Vegetables: A Way of Eating for Your Health and the Planet’s. The Experiment, New York. pp. 192. Search in Google Scholar

Kuhnlein, H.V. and N.J. Turner. 1991. Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. Nutrition, Botany and Use. Gordon & Breach Publishers, Philadelphia. pp. 633. Search in Google Scholar

Lambert, R. 2016. Seaweed Foraging in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. Alison Hodge, Cornwall. pp. 104. Search in Google Scholar

Lee, K. and A. Branyon. 1984. Chinese cooking secrets. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, New York. pp. 384. Search in Google Scholar

Le Roux, P. 1998. Connaître et cuisiner les algues bretonnes, 55 recettes. P. Le Roux. pp. 32. Search in Google Scholar

Le Roux, P. 2014. La cuisine aux algues. Éditions Jean-Paul Gisserot, Paris. pp. 32. Search in Google Scholar

Le Tennier, C. 2009. Algues & Gastronomie. La cuisine aux algues par les grands chefs de Bretagne. Éditions du Palémon, Saint-Évarzec, Brittany. pp.88. Search in Google Scholar

Lewallen, E. and J. Lewallen. 1996. Sea Vegetable Gourmet Cookbook and Wildcrafter’s Guide. Mendocino Sea Vegetable Co., Mendocino, California. pp. 128. Search in Google Scholar

Lewmanomont, K. 1978. Some edible algae of Thailand. Kasetsart J. 12: 119–129. Search in Google Scholar

Maderia, C.J. 2007. The new seaweed cookbook. North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, California. pp. 240. Search in Google Scholar

Madlener, J.C. 1977. The sea vegetable book. Crown Publications, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 288. Search in Google Scholar

Marfaing, H., J. Lemarié, P. Mollo, J. Vigneau and D. Mischlich. 2016. Savez-vous goûter... les algues? Presses de l’école des hautes études en santé publique, Rennes. pp. 128. Search in Google Scholar

Masterson, D.M. and S. Funada-Classen. 2004. The Japanese in Latin America. University of Illinois Press, Illinois. pp. 335. Search in Google Scholar

Matignon, B. 1992. Cuisine et gastronomie bretonnes aux algues. Éditions Coop Breizh, Spézet, Brittany. pp. 104. Search in Google Scholar

MacArtain, P., C.I.R. Gill, M. Brooks, R. Campbell and I.R. Rowland. 2007. Nutritional value of edible seaweeds. Nutr. Rev. 65: 535–543. Search in Google Scholar

Matsuyama, A. 2002. The traditional dietary culture of SE Asia. Routledge, Abingdon. pp. 350. Search in Google Scholar

McConnaughey, E. 2002. Sea vegetables. Harvesting guide & cookbook. Naturegraph Publishers, Inc., Happy Camp, California. pp. 240. Search in Google Scholar

McHugh, D.J. 2003. A guide to the seaweed industry. FAO, Fisheries Technical Paper, 441: 73–90. Search in Google Scholar

Milne, X. 2016. The seaweed cookbook. Michael Joseph, Pinguin Random House, London. 208 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Montecino, S. 2005. La olla deleitosa. Cocinas mestizas de Chile. Catalonia, Santiago de Chile. pp. 210. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. 2012a. The emerging science of gastrophysics and its application to the algal cuisine. Flavour 1: 6. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. 2012b. Umami flavour as a means to regulate food intake and to improve nutrition and health. Nutr. Health 21: 56–75. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. 2013a. Seaweeds. Edible, available & sustainable. Chicago University Press, Chicago. pp. 283. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. 2013b. The Science of Seaweeds. Marine macroalgae benefit people culturally, industrially, nutritionally, and ecologically. Amer. Sci. 101: 458–465. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. 2016. Gastrophysics of the oral cavity. Curr. Pharm. Des. 22: 2195–2203. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. 2017. Those taste weeds. J. Appl. Phycol. 29: 2159–2164. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. and H. Khandelia. 2012. Molecular mechanism of the allosteric enhancement of the umami taste sensation. FEBS J.279: 3112–3120. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. and K. Styrbæk. 2014. Umami: unlocking the secrets of the fifth taste. Columbia University Press, New York. pp. 280. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. and K. Styrbæk. 2017. Mouthfeel: how texture makes taste. Columbia University Press, New York. pp. 376. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G. and K. Styrbæk. 2018. Cephalopod gastronomy – a promise for the future. Front. Commun.3: 38. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G., L. Williams, R. Bjerregaard and L. Duelund. 2012. Seaweeds for umami flavor in the New Nordic Cuisine. Flavour 1: 4. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G., C. Dawczynski, L. Duelund, G. Jahreis, W. Vetter and M. Schroder. 2013. On the human consumption of the red seaweed dulse (Palmaria palmata (L.) Weber & Mohr) J. Appl. Phycol. 25: 1777–1791. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G., P. Rhatigan and J.L. Pérez-Lloréns. 2018a. World cuisine of seaweeds: science meets gastronomy. Int. J. Gastr. Food Sci. 14: 55–65. Search in Google Scholar

Mouritsen, O.G., L. Duelund, M.A. Petersen, A.L. Hartmann and M.B. Frøst. 2018b. Umami taste, free amino acid composition, and volatile compounds of brown seaweeds. J. Appl. Phycol. doi: org/10.1007/s10811-018-1632-x. Search in Google Scholar

Myhrvold, N. 2010. Modernist cuisine: the art and science of cooking. The Cooking Lab Publ., USA. Search in Google Scholar

Newton, L. 1951. Seaweed utilisation. Sampson Low, London. pp. 188. Search in Google Scholar

Ninomiya, K. 1998. Natural occurrence. Food Rev. Int.21: 177–211. Search in Google Scholar

Nisizawa, K., H. Noda, R. Kikuchi and T. Watanabe. 1987. The main seaweed foods in Japan. Hydrobiologia 151: 5–29. Search in Google Scholar

O’Connor, K. 2013. Invisible Foodscapes: Into the Blue. In: (E.-J. Abbots and A. Lavis, eds) Why We Eat, How We Eat. Contemporary Encounters between Foods and Bodies. Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Surrey, England. pp. 15–35. Search in Google Scholar

O’Connor, K. 2017. Seaweed: A Global History. Reaction Books, London. pp. 192. Search in Google Scholar

Onishi, K., M. Calmon and O. Picard. 2013. Les algues au naturel: Savoir les cueillir, les conserver et les cuisiner en 46 recettes. Alternatives, Paris. pp. 112. Search in Google Scholar

Organic Monitor. 2014. The European Market for Sea Vegetables. pp. 36. (www.organicmonitor.com). Search in Google Scholar

Ostraff, M. 2003. Contemporary uses of limu (marine algae) in the Vava’s Island Group, Kingdom of Tonga: an ethnobotanical study. PhD Thesis, University of Victoria, Canada. pp. 261. Search in Google Scholar

Pereira, E. 1977. Apuntes para la historia de la cocina chilena. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago de Chile. pp. 158. Search in Google Scholar

Pereira, L. 2011. A review of the nutrient composition of selected edible seaweeds. In: (V.H. Pomin, ed) Seaweed: ecology, nutrient composition and medical uses. Nova Science Publishers, New York. pp. 1–47. Search in Google Scholar

Pereira, L. 2016. Edible Seaweeds of the World. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 463. Search in Google Scholar

Pereira, L. 2018. Therapeutic and nutritional uses of algae. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 640. Search in Google Scholar

Pérez-Lloréns, J.L., I. Hernández, J.J. Vergara, F.G. Brun and Á. León. 2016. Las Algas Se Comen? Un Periplo por la Biología, las Curiosidades y la Gastronomía. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz. pp. 336. Search in Google Scholar

Pérez-Lloréns, J.L., I. Hernández, J.J. Vergara, F.G. Brun and Á. León. 2018. Those curious and delicious seaweeds. A fascinating voyage from biology to gastronomy. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz. pp. 384. Search in Google Scholar

Pettid, M.J. 2008. Korean cuisine. An illustrated history. Reaktion Books, Islington. pp. 224. Search in Google Scholar

Pomin, V.H. (ed). 2012. Seaweed: ecology, nutrient composition, and medical uses. Nova Sci. Publ., Inc., New York. pp. 248. Search in Google Scholar

Quéva, R. and C. Le Joncour. 2017. Algues gourmandes. Les vertus de la mer sont dans l’assiette. Flammarion, Paris. pp. 160. Search in Google Scholar

Rhatigan, P. 2009. Irish seaweed kitchen. Booklink, Co Down, Ireland. pp. 287. Search in Google Scholar

Robertson, J. 1856. Purple shore. Household Words Magazine XIV: 391–395. Search in Google Scholar

SANZ. 2018. Seaweed Association of New Zealand, http://www.sanz.org.nz/Indigenous.htm.html. Accessed: 5 May 2018. Search in Google Scholar

SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies. 2017. Food from the Oceans. How can more food and biomass be obtained from the oceans in a way that does not deprive future generations of their benefits? Evidence Review Report No. 1. SAPEA, Berlin. http://doi.org/10.26356/foodfromtheoceans. Search in Google Scholar

Saulnier, A. and P. Dieudonné. 1998. Les nouveaux aliments. Soja, algues. Editions SAEP, Colmar, Alsace. pp. 95. Search in Google Scholar

Seaver, B. 2016. Superfood seagreens: a guide to cooking with power-packed seaweed. Sterling, New York. pp. 168. Search in Google Scholar

Sexton, R. 1998. A Little History of Irish Food. Kyle Books, London. pp.128. Search in Google Scholar

Siefert, C., Z. Christiansen, L. Westgaard and H. Martinsen. 2017. A collection of simple and delicious recipes from an Ocean of food. Grub Street Cookery, London. pp. 188. Search in Google Scholar

Simoons, F.J. 1991. Food in China. A cultural and historical inquiry. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 600. Search in Google Scholar

Smith, H.M. 1905. The seaweed industries of Japan. Bull. U.S. Bureau Fish. 24: 133–181. Search in Google Scholar

Smith, J. L., G. Summers and R. Wong. 2010. Nutrient and heavy metal content of edible seaweeds in New Zealand. New Zealand J. Crop Hort. Sci. 38: 19–28. Search in Google Scholar

Soegiarto, A. and Sulustijo. 1990. Utilization and farming of seaweeds in Indonesia. In: (I.J. Dogma Jr., G.C. Trono Jr. and R.A. Tabbada, eds) Culture and use of algae in Southeast Asia: Proceedings of the Symposium on Culture and Utilization of Algae in Southeast Asia. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. pp. 9–19. Search in Google Scholar

Spence, C. 2017. Gastrophysics: the new science of eating. Viking, London. pp. 336. Search in Google Scholar

Tinellis, C. (ed). 2014. Coastal Chef. Culinary Art of Seaweed and Algae in the 21st Century. Harbour Publ. House, Sydney. pp. 260. Search in Google Scholar

Tseng, C.K. 1984. Modern seaweeds of China. Science Press, Beijing. pp. 316. Search in Google Scholar

Tsuji, S. 1980. Japanese cooking: a simple art. Kodansha America, Incorporated, New York. pp. 518. Search in Google Scholar

Turner, N.J. 1995. Food plants of coastal first peoples. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. pp. 178. Search in Google Scholar

Turner, N.J. 2004. Plants of Haida Gwaii. Sonosis Press, Winlaw, British Columbia. pp. 264. Search in Google Scholar

Tylor, C. 2008. The Seaweed Jelly-Diet Cookbook Guide. Lulu.com. pp. 136. Search in Google Scholar

UN General Assembly. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld. Search in Google Scholar

Warwick-Evans, C. and T. van Berkel. 2017. The Seaweed Cookbook: A Forager’s Guide to Edible Seaweeds and Delicious Recipes to Cook With Them. Lorenz Books, Dayton, Ohio. pp. 288. Search in Google Scholar

Winberg, P.C. 2017. Best practices for the emerging Australian Seaweed Industry: seaweed quality control systems. AgriFutures Australia. 31pp. Search in Google Scholar

Wright, J. 2010. The River Cottage Edible Seashore Handbook. Bloomsbury, London. pp. 243. Search in Google Scholar

Xia, B. and I. Abbott. 1987. Edible seaweeds of China and their place in the Chinese diet. Econ. Bot. 41: 341–353. Search in Google Scholar

Youssef, J. 2013. Molecular Gastronomy at Home. Firefly Books, Richmond Hill, Ontario. pp. 240. Search in Google Scholar

Zaneveld, J.S. 1955. Economic Marine Algae of Tropical South and East Asian and their Utilization. Edited by IPFC Secretariat, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Far East, Bangkok. pp. 55. Search in Google Scholar

Article note

This article is part of the special issue series of Botanica Marina: Seaweed resources of the world: a 2020 vision, starting publication in Botanica Marina 2019, vol. 62, issue 3. The series will be guest-edited by Alan T. Critchley, Anicia Hurtado, Leonel Pereira, Melania Cornish, Danilo Largo and Nicholas Paul.

Received: 2018-04-17
Accepted: 2018-09-14
Published Online: 2018-12-07
Published in Print: 2019-06-26

©2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston