Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 15, 2019

The seaweed resources of Alaska

Michael S. Stekoll
From the journal Botanica Marina

Abstract

Alaska has the longest coastline of all of the states in the USA. This coastal zone stretches from the temperate zone to past the Arctic circle. Oceanographic conditions vary from quiet estuaries to exposed open coasts. Water temperatures range from over 20°C in the summer in the south to ice covered water in the north. Consequently, the marine flora is plentiful and diverse with over 500 species of seaweeds. Three species of floating kelps occur from the southern boundary to Kodiak Island and westward along the Aleutian Chain. Species of Fucus are dominant in the intertidal along most of the coastline. There is also an abundance of red algae in the intertidal and subtidal. There is only minimal subsistence and commercial utilization of the seaweed resource. The major commercial use of seaweeds is in the herring spawn-on-kelp fishery. “Black seaweed” (Pyropia sp.) is a special resource for Alaskan Native subsistence harvest. Recently, there has been increasing interest and activity in the commercial mariculture of kelps such as Saccharina latissima and Alaria marginata.

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank the Alaskan Department of Fish and Game, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Auke Bay Laboratory and Sandra C. Lindstrom for providing valuable data for this manuscript.

References

ADF&G. 1986. Review of the Prince William Sound area commercial herring fisheries, 1986. Prince William Sound Area Data Report. pp. 27. Search in Google Scholar

ADF&G. 2004. 2004 permit and fishing activity by year, state, census area, or city. http://www.cfec.state.ak.us/gpbycen/2004/00_ALL.htm. (Accessed 2018-12-26). Search in Google Scholar

ADF&G. 2018. Fishery statistics – participation & earnings. https://www.cfec.state.ak.us/fishery_statistics/earnings.htm. (accessed 2018-09-05). Search in Google Scholar

Alaska Sea Grant. 2018. Applied research for a new seaweed aquaculture industry in Alaska. Alaska Sea Grant Project Database, https://seagrant.uaf.edu/research/projects/summary.php?id=1055. (Accessed 2018-06-11). Search in Google Scholar

Betts, M. 1991. Seven criteria workshop for findings on: customary and traditional uses of seaweed and kelp in SE Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Region I. Juneau, Alaska. Search in Google Scholar

Brower, W.A. Jr., R.G. Baldwin, C.N. Williams Jr., J.L. Wise and L.D. Leslie. 1988. Climatic atlas of the outer continental shelf waters and Coastal Regions of Alaska. Volume 1. Gulf of Alaska. Anchorage, Alaska: Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center, University of Alaska. Search in Google Scholar

Conitz, J.M., R. Fagen, S.C. Lindstrom, F.G. Plumley and M.S. Stekoll. 2001. Growth and pigmentation of juvenile Porphyra torta (Rhodophyta) gametophytes in response to nitrate, salinity and inorganic carbon. J. Appl. Phycol. 13: 423–431. Search in Google Scholar

Conitz, J., R. Fagen and M.S. Stekoll. 2013. Effects of density and substrate type on recruitment and growth of Pyropia torta (Rhodophyta) gametophytes. Botanica Marina 56: 525–533. Search in Google Scholar

Coonradt, E., D. Harris, T. Thynes and S. Walker. 2018. 2018 Southeast Alaska herring SOK pound fishery management plan. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Regional Information Report 1J18-01, Douglas (http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/RIR.1J.2018.01.pdf). Search in Google Scholar

Deiman, M., K. Iken and B. Konar. 2012. Susceptibility of Nereocystis luetkeana (Laminariales, Ochrophyta) and Eualaria fistulosa (Laminariales,Ochrophyta) spores to sedimentation. Algae 27: 115–123. Search in Google Scholar

Demetropoulos, C.L. 2002. Enhanced production of Pacific Dulse (Palmaria mollis) for co-culture with abalone in a land-based system. Dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. Search in Google Scholar

Dunton, K.H. and C.M. Jodwalis. 1988. Photosynthetic performance of Laminaria solidungula measured in situ in the Alaskan High Arctic. Mar. Biol. 98: 277–285. Search in Google Scholar

Frye, T.C. 1915. Part IV. The kelp beds of Southeast Alaska. In: (F.K. Cameron, ed) Potash from Kelp. U.S.D.A. Washington, DC. pp. 60–104. Search in Google Scholar

Funk, F. 1991. Preliminary forecasts of catch and stock abundance for 1991 Alaska herring fisheries. ADF&G Regional Information Report. No. 5J91-03. Division of Commercial Fisheries, Juneau, Alaska. pp. 110. Search in Google Scholar

Funk, F. and M. Harris. 1992. Preliminary forecasts of catch and stock abundance for 1992 Alaska herring fisheries. Regional Information Report Alaska Department of Fish and Game. No. 5J92-04, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Juneau, Alaska. pp. 115. Search in Google Scholar

Gabrielson, P.W. and S.C. Lindstrom. 2018. Keys to the Seaweeds Seagrasses of Southeast Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon. Department of Botany, University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Phycological Contribution Number 9. ISBN 0-9763817-3-7. PhycoID, Hillsborough, North Carolina. pp. 180. Search in Google Scholar

Hamner, H.H. 1988. Pacific herring stocks and fisheries in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of the northeastern Bering Sea, Alaska, 1988. Regional Information Report No. 3A-88-38. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. pp. 24. Search in Google Scholar

Heine, J.N. 1989. Effects of ice scour on the structure of sublittoral marine algal assemblages of St. Lawrence and St. Matthew Islands, Alaska. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 52: 253–260. Search in Google Scholar

Hood, D.W. and E.J. Kelley. 1974. Oceanography of the Bering Sea. Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska. pp. 623. Search in Google Scholar

Kawai, H., M. Lindeberg and S.C. Lindstrom. 2008. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Aureophycus aleuticus gen. et sp. nov. (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) from the Aleutian Islands. J. Phycol. 44: 1013–1021. Search in Google Scholar

Kawai, H., T. Hanyuda, L.M. Ridgway and K. Holser. 2013. Ancestral reproductive structure in basal kelp Aureophycus aleuticus. Sci. Rep. 3: 2491. Search in Google Scholar

Kendziorek, M. and M.S. Stekoll. 1984. Intraspecific competition and the management of the Bristol Bay herring-roe-on-kelp fishery. Hydrobiologia 116/117: 333–337. Search in Google Scholar

Kjellman, F.R. 1889. Marine algae of the Bering Sea. Documents of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Royal Publishers, P. A. Norstedt & Sons, Stockholm, 23: 4–66. Search in Google Scholar

Konar, B. and K. Iken. 2009. Influence of taxonomic resolution and morphological functional groups in multivariate analyses of macroalgal assemblages. Phycologia 48: 24–31. Search in Google Scholar

Konar, B., K. Iken and M. Edwards. 2009. Depth-stratified community zonation patterns on Gulf of Alaska rocky shores. Mar. Ecol. 30: 63–73. Search in Google Scholar

Konar, B., K. Iken, J.J. Cruz-Motta, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, A. Knowlton, G. Pohle, P. Miloslavich, M. Edwards, T. Trott, E. Kimani, R. Riosmena-Rodriguez, M. Wong, S. Jenkins, A. Silva, I. Sousa Pinto and Y. Shirayama. 2010. Current patterns of macroalgal diversity and biomass in northern hemisphere rocky shores. PLoS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013195. Search in Google Scholar

Lebednik, P.A. and J.F. Palmisano. 1977. Ecology of marine algae, In: (L. Melvin, M.L Merritt and R.G. Fuller, eds) The Environment of Amchitka Island, Alaska. National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia. Search in Google Scholar

Lebida, R.C. 1986. Pacific herring stocks and fisheries in the eastern Bering Sea, Alaska. Bristol Bay Data Report86–7. pp. 38. Search in Google Scholar

Lebida, R.C., C. Whitmore and G.J. Sandone. 1984. Pacific herring stocks and fisheries in the eastern Bering Sea, Alaska, 1984. Bristol Bay Data Report84–14. pp. 22. Search in Google Scholar

Lind, A.C. and B. Konar. 2017. Effects of abiotic stressors on kelp early life-history stages. Algae 32: 223–233. Search in Google Scholar

Lindeberg, M. and S.C. Lindstrom. 2015. Field guide to seaweeds of Alaska. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, Fairbanks, AK. pp. 188. Search in Google Scholar

Lindstrom, S.C. 2006. Biogeography of Alaskan seaweeds. J. Appl. Phycol. 18: 637–641. Search in Google Scholar

Lindstrom, S.C. 2008. Cryptic diversity, biogeography and genetic variation in Northeast Pacific species of Porphyra sensu lato (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). J. Appl. Phycol. 20: 951–962. Search in Google Scholar

Lindstrom, S.C. 2009. The biogeography of seaweeds in Southeast Alaska. J. Biogeogr. 36: 401–409. Search in Google Scholar

Lindstrom, S.C and K.M. Cole. 1992. A revision of the species of Porphyra (Rhodophyta: Bangiales) occurring in British Columbia and adjacent waters. Can. J. Bot. 70: 2066–2075. Search in Google Scholar

Lindstrom, S.C. and S. Fredericq. 2003. rbcL gene sequences reveal relationships among north-east Pacific species of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) and a new species, P. aestivalis. Phycol. Res. 51: 211–224. Search in Google Scholar

Lindstrom, S.C., J.P. Houghton and D.C. Lees. 1999. Intertidal macroalgal community structure in southwestern Prince William Sound, Alaska. Bot. Mar. 42: 265–280. Search in Google Scholar

Lüning, K. 1990. Seaweeds (their environment, biogeography and ecophysiology). John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. Search in Google Scholar

McHugh, D.J. 2003. A guide to the seaweed industry. FAO Technical Paper 441. Rome. Search in Google Scholar

NASA. 2018. Arctic Sea Ice Minimum. Scientific Visualization Studio. https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/arctic-sea-ice/. (Accessed 2018-05-28). Search in Google Scholar

National Research Council (NRC). 1996. The Bering Sea Ecosystem. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. pp. 307. Search in Google Scholar

O’Clair, C.E and S.T. Zimmerman. 1986. Biogeography and ecology of the intertidal and shallow subtidal communities. In: (D.W. Hood and S.T. Zimmerman, eds) The Gulf of Alaska. Physical environment and biological resources. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, pp. 305–344. Search in Google Scholar

O’Clair, R.M., S.C. Lindstrom and I.R. Brodo. 1996. Southeast Alaska’s Rocky Shores – Seaweeds and Lichens. Plant Press, Auke Bay, Alaska. Search in Google Scholar

Paul, A.J., J.M. Paul, D.W. Hood and R.A. Neve. 1977. Observations on food preferences, daily ration requirements and growth of Haliotis kamtschatkana Jonas in captivity. Veliger 19: 303–309. Search in Google Scholar

Pereira, L.A., M. Amado, A.T. Critchley, F. van de Velde, P.J.A. Ribeiro-Claro. 2009. Identification of selected seaweed polysaccharides (phycocolloids) by vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman). Food Hydrocoll. 23: 1903–1909. Search in Google Scholar

Perovich, D., W. Meier, M. Tschudi, S. Farrell, S. Hendricks, S. Gerland, C. Haas, T. Krumpen, C. Polashenski, R. Ricker, M. Webster. 2017. Sea ice -Arctic Essays. https://www.arctic.noaa.gov/Report-Card/Report-Card-2017. (Accessed 2018-08-28). Search in Google Scholar

Rigg, G.B. 1915. Part V. The kelp beds of Western Alaska. In: (F.K. Cameron, ed) Potash from Kelp, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. pp. 105–122. Search in Google Scholar

Roberts, W.A. 1993. An assessment of markets for Porphyra products. Report for: Sitka Tribe of Alaska, University of Alaska Southeast, School of Business and Public Administration, Juneau, Alaska. Search in Google Scholar

Sandone, G. 1991. Assessment of the recovery of rockweed kelp, Fucus, following experimental removals and observations on its growth under natural conditions in Norton Sound, Alaska. ADF&G Fishery Research Bulletin No. 9 1-03. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. pp. 16. Search in Google Scholar

Savikko, H. 1989. 1988 Preliminary Alaska commercial fisheries harvests and values. Regional Information Report No. 5J89-03, Alaska Department of Fish and Game. pp. 65. Search in Google Scholar

Savikko, H. and T. Page. 1990. 1989 Preliminary Alaska Commercial Fisheries Harvests and Values. ADF&G Regional Information Report, no. 5590-07 Alaska Department of Fish and Game. pp. 103. Search in Google Scholar

Scagel, R.F., P.W. Gabrielson, D.J. Garbary, M. Golden, M.W. Hawkes, S.C. Oliveira, S.C. Lindstrom and T.B. Widdowson. 1989. A Synopsis of the Benthic Marine Algae of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska, Washington and Oregon. Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia. Search in Google Scholar

Selkregg, L.L. 1976. Alaska Regional Profiles (Volumes I-VI). Arctic Environmental Information Data Center, University of Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska. Search in Google Scholar

Stekoll, M.S. 1986. Sea Vegetables. Alaska Fish and Game 18: 18–21. Search in Google Scholar

Stekoll, M.S. 1988. Development of Macrocystis culture in Alaska. Proceedings of the Fourth Alaska Aquaculture Conference. November, 1987, Sitka, Alaska, Alaska Sea Grant Report 88–4, pp 13–18. Search in Google Scholar

Stekoll, M.S. 1989. Mariculture of the kelp, Macrocystis, in southeast Alaska. NW Environ. J. 5: 141–143. Search in Google Scholar

Stekoll, M.S. 1999. Marine plant mariculture in Alaska: status and research. World Aquaculture 30: 52–54. Search in Google Scholar

Stekoll, M.S. and L. Deysher. 1996. Recolonization and restoration of upper intertidal Fucus gardneri (Fucales, Phaeophyta) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hydrobiologia 326/327: 311–316. Search in Google Scholar

Stekoll, M.S and P.V. Else. 1990. Cultivation of Macrocystis integrifolia (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in southeastern Alaskan waters. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 445–451. Search in Google Scholar

Stekoll, M.S and P.V. Else. 1992. The Feasibility of Macrocystis Mariculture in Southeast Alaska. The State of Alaska and the Japan Overseas Fisheries Cooperation Foundation, Tokyo, Japan. Search in Google Scholar

Stekoll, M.S., L.M. Ridgway and W.A. Roberts Jr. 1992. Seaweed Industry Feasibility Study - St Lawrence Island. Report for the Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs (Contract RSA EN 2112008), University of Alaska, Juneau, Alaska. Search in Google Scholar

Stekoll, M.S., R. Lin, and S.C. Lindstrom. 1999. Porphyra cultivation in Alaska: conchocelis growth of three indigenous species. Hydrobiologia 398/399: 291–297. Search in Google Scholar

van Tamelen, P.G. and M.S. Stekoll. 1996. Population response of the brown alga Fucus gardneri and other algae in Herring Bay, Prince William Sound to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In: (S.D. Rice, R.B. Spies, D.A. Wolfe and B.A. Wright, eds) Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Symposium Proceedings. American Fisheries Society Symposium 18: 193–211. Search in Google Scholar

Weinmann, F.C. 1969. Amchitka bioenvironmental program. Aspects of benthic marine algal ecology at Amchitka Island, Alaska. U. S. Atomic Energy Commission Report, BMI-171-115. Batelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio. Search in Google Scholar

Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (https://doi.org/10.1515/bot-2018-0064).

Article note

This article is part of the special issue series of Botanica Marina: Seaweed resources of the world: a 2020 vision, starting publication in Botanica Marina 2019, vol. 62, issue 3. The series will be guest-edited by Alan T. Critchley, Anicia Hurtado, Leonel Pereira, Melania Cornish, Danilo Largo and Nicholas Paul.

Received: 2018-06-27
Accepted: 2018-12-06
Published Online: 2019-01-15
Published in Print: 2019-06-26

©2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston