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DNA barcoding-based assessment of the invasive and native non-crustose Codium species in the central Cantabrian Sea, southern Bay of Biscay

Roberta Skukan, José M. Rico and Yaisel J. Borrell ORCID logo
From the journal Botanica Marina


In this work, we identified non-crustose invasive (Codium fragile subsp. fragile) and native Codium spp. (Codium tomentosum and Codium vermilara) in the central Cantabrian Sea using DNA barcoding (tufA and rbcL genes). We designed a new FCOtufA genetic marker for identifying Codium spp. in fresh and herbarium material. The tufA and rbcL sequences revealed three different single haplotypes for each of the species and a lack of intraspecific genetic diversity. The FCOtufA genetic marker revealed one new haplotype of C. fragile within the native region (South Korea), suggesting the possibility of higher genetic diversity in the donor region of this invasive species.

Corresponding author: Yaisel J. Borrell, Department of Functional Biology, Genetics, University of Oviedo, C/ Julián Clavería s/n, 33006Oviedo, Spain, E-mail:

Funding source: University of Oviedo

Award Identifier / Grant number: FUO095-2016

Funding source: Port Authority of Gijón

Award Identifier / Grant number: MINECO-17-CGL2016-79209-R

Funding source: Asturian and Spanish Governments

Award Identifier / Grant number: FC-GRUPIN-IDI/2018/000201

Funding source: EU Project Aquainvad-ED

Award Identifier / Grant number: H2020-MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN-642197


This work was supported by the EU Project Aquainvad-ED (H2020-MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN-642197). We are very grateful to Prof. Christine Maggs for providing herbarium samples and Dr. Hyul Je Lee for sending fresh samples from South Korea.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: This work has been funded by the University of Oviedo, the Port Authority of Gijón, and the Asturian and Spanish governments (FUO095-2016, MINECO-17-CGL2016-79209-R, and FC-GRUPIN-IDI/2018/000201).

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Supplementary Material

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Received: 2020-09-24
Accepted: 2020-12-18
Published Online: 2021-01-06
Published in Print: 2021-02-23

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