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基于真实语料的 “是…的” 构式初级汉语教学设计

Teaching the shi…de construction with authentic materials in elementary Chinese
Danjie Su

苏 丹洁,博士(洛杉矶加州大学,2017,师从陶红印先生),美国阿肯色大学中文部助理教授,主要研究二语教学、汉语语法、话语语用语言学、社会文化语言学。著述刊于 Discourse Studies, Journal of Pragmatics, Chinese Language and Discourse, Journal of Chinese Linguistics等。《国际汉语》创刊编辑,Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 顾问编委。

Danjie Su, PhD (UCLA, 2017), Visiting Assistant Professor of Chinese, University of Arkansas. Research Interests: applied linguistics (SLA), Chinese linguistics, discourse pragmatics, and sociocultural linguistics. She has published in journals such as Discourse Studies, Journal of Pragmatics, Chinese Language and Discourse, and Journal of Chinese Linguistics. She is a founding co-editor of Guoji Hanyu and an Editorial Advisory Board member of Journal of Asian Pacific Communication.

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and Hongyin Tao

陶 红印,博士 (圣塔芭芭拉加州大学), 美国洛杉矶加州大学亚洲语言文化系教授、中文部主任,同时兼任美国教育部资助的宾州州立大学高级汉语教学研究项目主任及台湾师范大学英语学系讲座教授。曾任(2014 年度)美国中文教师学会会长。目前已发表的语言学和语言教学论著有一百二十多种

Hongyin Tao, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara), is Professor of Chinese language and linguistics and applied linguistics and coordinator of the Chinese language program at UCLA. His areas of expertise include Mandarin discourse and grammar, corpus linguistics, sociocultural linguistics, and applied linguistics. Some of his recent publications include Integrating Linguistics Research with Chinese Language Teaching and Learning (John Benjamin, 2016), Chinese under Globalization (World Scientific, 2011) and Working with Spoken Chinese (Penn State University, 2011).

提要

“是…的” 句是初级汉语教学常见语法格式。该句式语义语用功能较抽象,句法上也常有 “可用可不用” 的情况,是汉语习得难点之一。本文通过基于影视会话的 “是…的” 句教学设计,例示如何使用真实语料教初级汉语,尤其是语法。本文将 “是…的” 句最典型的表确信的构式作为教学重点,展示如何将含有目标语法格式的真实语料转化为面向初级阶段的教学材料、课堂活动设计和测试材料。本文表明,初级阶段可使用真实语料来教二语难点语法。

Abstract

This study provides an L2 pedagogical design to illustrate how and why authentic materials should and can be utilized in beginning-level grammar teaching – even of those most elusive grammatical constructions. In particular, we discuss the pedagogy of the so-called shi…de grammatical construction in Mandarin Chinese, one of the most challenging grammatical constructions for L2 learners of Chinese. We use spoken language data to demonstrate how this grammatical construction is used at the discourse level, how to engage students in critical thinking about its use or non-use in context, and what motivates the choices of different grammatical constructions and the implications of such choices for L2 teaching and learning. Shi…de has been regarded as a focus, emphasis, or highlighting device. The construction itself consists of a copular (shi) plus de, which is both a nominalization marker and an utterance-final particle. Due to the multifaceted nature of the components and the versatility of the structure, this construction has been analyzed from multiple perspectives, with controversies on its nature, function, and optionality in use. In most elementary Chinese textbooks, shide is introduced as a basic grammatical feature of modern Chinese and with conflicting or vague descriptions. Most problematically, this grammatical construction is often taught in isolation and devoid of any context, leaving learners confused about when to use it. As a result, it is not surprising to see that learners do not often use this construction when the context calls for it – as a series of SLA studies have found. This shows that the acquisition of grammatical constructions such as the shi…de construction is not merely a structural issue. Rather, we believe that the mastery of discourse pragmatics plays an important role in the acquisition of L2 grammar. In particular, the issue of teaching grammar in context should be given primary emphasis in grammar pedagogy. This holds true regardless of the level of language proficiency. We argue that at the beginning level, it is particularly crucial to expose L2 learners to the way L1 speakers use a given grammatical construction for a matching context, and that authentic materials, which are produced for L1 speakers, should and can be utilized to serve such purposes. To this aim, we demonstrate how authentic materials can be used effectively in beginner level Mandarin Chinese to teach the subtleties of the usage of the shi…de construction. We incorporate corpus-based studies of spoken discourse and attempt to prioritize the observed patterns with different frequencies in discourse in our pragmatically-informed pedagogy. We contend that shi…de as a complex construction has preferred components and is typically used in persuasive discourse contexts. We present a usage-based construction-based analysis of the typical patterns of shi…de and outline major learning goals according to the difficulties that learners often encounter with regard to the acquisition of shi…de. Based on these observations, we design our teaching unit with movie and TV-show clips to enhance 1) the leaner’s understanding of the common discourse contexts in which shi…de can be felicitously used; and 2) the common components that go in this construction. A major part of the paper is dedicated to the actual development of instructional guidelines on implementing authentic materials in a classroom setting, from effectively utilizing videos to designing instructional activities and conducting assessments. The instructional process combines a sketch of structural properties with a semantic and discourse-pragmatic analysis, all of which are based on commonly found features in actual discourse: Step I illustrates the persuasive discourse context, Step II focuses on the use of shi…de with adjectival components, and Step III deals with the use of shi…de with verbal components. For sample assessment activities, we include materials such as language and context matching, use of language structure to convey specific meanings, and interactional use of shi…de in conversation. In short, our discourse research-informed pedagogy provides evidence that authentic materials can be used effectively for grammar teaching at the beginner level. Based on the case of shi…de, we argue that for L2 learners, an understanding of language structures at the discourse level is crucial to a proper understanding and use of the target language. (All relevant video clips used in this article can be found from this website: http://clicresearch.rice.edu/caslar-authentic-spoken-language/#de)

About the authors

Danjie Su

苏 丹洁,博士(洛杉矶加州大学,2017,师从陶红印先生),美国阿肯色大学中文部助理教授,主要研究二语教学、汉语语法、话语语用语言学、社会文化语言学。著述刊于 Discourse Studies, Journal of Pragmatics, Chinese Language and Discourse, Journal of Chinese Linguistics等。《国际汉语》创刊编辑,Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 顾问编委。

Danjie Su, PhD (UCLA, 2017), Visiting Assistant Professor of Chinese, University of Arkansas. Research Interests: applied linguistics (SLA), Chinese linguistics, discourse pragmatics, and sociocultural linguistics. She has published in journals such as Discourse Studies, Journal of Pragmatics, Chinese Language and Discourse, and Journal of Chinese Linguistics. She is a founding co-editor of Guoji Hanyu and an Editorial Advisory Board member of Journal of Asian Pacific Communication.

Hongyin Tao

陶 红印,博士 (圣塔芭芭拉加州大学), 美国洛杉矶加州大学亚洲语言文化系教授、中文部主任,同时兼任美国教育部资助的宾州州立大学高级汉语教学研究项目主任及台湾师范大学英语学系讲座教授。曾任(2014 年度)美国中文教师学会会长。目前已发表的语言学和语言教学论著有一百二十多种

Hongyin Tao, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara), is Professor of Chinese language and linguistics and applied linguistics and coordinator of the Chinese language program at UCLA. His areas of expertise include Mandarin discourse and grammar, corpus linguistics, sociocultural linguistics, and applied linguistics. Some of his recent publications include Integrating Linguistics Research with Chinese Language Teaching and Learning (John Benjamin, 2016), Chinese under Globalization (World Scientific, 2011) and Working with Spoken Chinese (Penn State University, 2011).

本文所用到的视频材料可见于下述网站:http://clicresearch.rice.edu/caslar-authentic-spoken-language/#de

附录

A 视频#1 文字转写

Transcript: (爸爸)爱你跟爱姐姐是一样的

An acquaintance is comforting the crying boy by stating that his dad loves him just as much as he does his sister.

1.Man: 你爱你的爸爸吗?

2. 爱?

3. Boy: <Nod>

4. Man: 爱不爱他?

5. 那你的爸爸爱你吗?

6. Boy: <shake head>

7. Man: 不爱啊?!

8. 爸爸为什么不爱你?

9. Boy: 姐姐

10. Man: 爸爸爱姐姐?

11. 爸爸

12. 爸爸不爱你吗?

13. Boy: <shake head>

14. Man: 爸爸会跟我说,

15.他爱你跟爱姐姐是一样的,

16. 你是男孩子,

17. 爸爸会希望你会更。
1. Man: Do you love your dad?

2. Love?

3. Boy: <Nod>

4. Man: Love him or not?

5. Does your dad love you?

6. Boy: <shake head>

7. Man: (Your dad) does not love (you)?

8. Why doesn’t your dad love you?

9. Boy: Older sister

10. Man: Your dad loves your sister?

11. Your dad,

12. your dad doesn’t love you?

13. Boy: <shake head>

14. Man: Your dad will tell me that

15. the reality is that he loves you as much as he loves your older sister.

16. You are a boy;

17. your dad would hope that you would be more brave.
1. Man: 你愛你的爸爸嗎?

2. 愛?

3. Boy: <Nod>

4. Man: 愛不愛他?

5. 那你的爸爸愛你嗎?

6. Boy: <shake head>

7. Man: 不愛啊?!

8. 爸爸為什麼不愛你?

9. Boy: 姐姐

10. Man: 爸爸愛姐姐?

11. 爸爸

12. 爸爸不愛你嗎?

13. Boy: <shake head>

14.Man: 爸爸會跟我說,

15. 他愛你跟愛姐姐是一樣的,

16. 你是男孩子,

17.爸爸會希望你會更。
  1. Source: 《爸爸去哪儿》第四季,第六期

    https: //www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5uNEnDfaQY&list=PLGnjPtt6DJXQ4B1AQi1-Y08POu1QvSrYi&index=7

Comparison:

  1. 他爱你跟爱姐姐是一样的。

    他愛你跟愛姐姐是一樣的。

    ‘The reality is that he loves you as much as he does your older sister.’

  2. 他爱你跟爱姐姐一样。

    他愛你跟愛姐姐一樣。

    ‘He loves you as much as he does your older sister.’

When to use 是…的:

In general, the shi…de sentence is used to explains a situation and emphasize a related opinion or fact to convince the addressee. The shi…de sentence affirms, denies, or specifies some assumption that is already in the air by clarifying what the situation is with respect to that assumption, as opposed to simply reporting an event.

说服性的语境:

  1. 有的同学认为学会写汉字很重要,有的同学觉得写汉字不重要,因为可以用电脑和手机打字。你觉得呢?你可以说服别人吗?

  2. 有的同学觉得小考很有用,有的同学觉得小考没有用。你觉得怎么样?你可以说服别人吗?

  3. 班上的张同学今天没来上课。你说他生病了。真的吗?你怎么知道?

    非 “是…的” 句“是…的” 句(说服性的语境)
    a) 我觉得写汉字很重要。我觉得写汉字是很重要的。
    b) 我觉得小考很有用。我觉得小考是很有用的。
    c) 张同学真的生病了。他自己昨天晚上打电话告诉我。张同学真的生病了。是他自己昨天晚上打电话告诉我的。

说服性的语境:

a)有的同學認為學會寫漢字很重要,有的同學覺得寫漢字不重要,因為可以用電腦和手機打字。你覺得呢?你可以說服別人嗎?

b)有的同學覺得小考很有用,有的同學覺得小考沒有用。你覺得怎麼樣?你可以說服別人嗎?

c)班上的張同學今天沒來上課。你說他生病了。真的嗎?你怎麼知道?

非 “是…的” 句“是…的” 句(說服性的語境)
a) 我覺得寫漢字很重要。我覺得寫漢字是很重要的。
b) 我覺得小考很有用。我覺得小考是很有用的。
c) 張同學真的生病了。他自己昨天晚上打電話告訴我。張同學真的生病了。是他自己昨天晚上打電話告訴我的。

B 视频#2 文字转写

Transcript: 医生都很好的

Meijia suspects that she is pregnant but is too nervous to go for a checkup at the hospital. Her good friend, Youyou, is trying to calm her down by assuring her that the doctors here – as opposed to public hospitals – are actually very good.

Youyou:Youyou:Youyou:
1.Meijia,1.Meijia,1.Meijia,
2.你别紧张。2.Please don’t be nervous.2.你別緊張。
3.3.This is a private hospital.3.
4.医生都很好4.The situation is that all the doctors are very good (here).4.醫生都很好
  1. Source: 电视剧《爱情公寓》, season 4, episode 2.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8C97R9mY74

Comparison:

  1. 医生都很好的。

醫生都很好的。

‘The situation is that all the doctors are very good (here). ’

  1. 医生都很好。

醫生都很好。

‘All the doctors are very good (here).’

Pattern of “是…的” used with adjective phrase:

[话题]+ +[所强调的观点或事实]+ 的
TopicNoun (phrase)/Verb (phrase)Opinion/fact being emphasized
(很/非常/不…)+Adj
(很/非常/不…) 重要的。
(不) 对
(不) 一样 ……

C 视频#3 文字转写

Transcript: 是你给她的

The male character accidentally ate a beef dish that was made with dog food ingredients. Not knowing the truth, he enjoyed the beef dish a lot and asked Meijia, who cooked the dish, where the beef came from. Meijia told him that it was Wanyu who gave her the beef. The male character thus comes to Wanyu and is asking her where she bought the beef.

1. Guy: Wanyu,1.Guy: Wanyu,1. Guy: Wanyu,
2. 我问你个事儿。2.I have a question for you.2. 我問你個事兒。
3.昨天那牛肉在哪儿买3.Where was that beef (dish) bought yesterday?3. 昨天那牛肉在哪兒買
4. Meijia说你给她4.Meijia said that it was you who gave it to her.4.Meijia 說你給她
5.Wanyu: 这个……你吃了?5.Wanyu: Um… you ate it?5. Wanyu: 這個……你吃了?
6. Guy: 是啊。6.Guy: Yes.6. Guy: 是啊。
  1. Source: 电视剧《爱情公寓》, season 1, episode 8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G1eId6XbYpY

Comparison:

  1. Meijia说是你给她的。

Meijia說是你給她的。

‘Meijia said that it was you who gave it to her.’

  1. ?Meijia说你给她。

?Meijia說你給她。

‘Meijia said that you gave it to her.’

Pattern of “是…的” used with verb phrase:

[话题] Topic+ +[所强调的观点或事实] Opinion/fact being emphasized+ 的
Noun (phrase)/Verb (phrase)(不/没)+ Verb phrase
很爱我哥的。
人生的路有很多条的。
十一点起来的。
这条路我自己要的。
从北京来 ……的。

“是…的” vs. “了”

  1. – 他为什么不会说英文?‘How come he cannot speak English?’

– 因为他是昨天来的。‘The situation is that he came (to this English-speaking country) yesterday.’

  1. – 他到了吗? ‘Has he arrived?’

– 他昨天来了。‘He came yesterday.’

D 视频#4 文字转写

Transcript: 这是我送的

Gift giving at a Christmas party.

1.All:圣诞快乐!1.All:Merry Christmas!1.All:聖誕快樂!
2.Host:我抱你上去好不好,2.Host:Let me lift you up, ok?2.Host:我抱你上去好不好,
3.来,亲我一下,来。3.Come on. Give me a kiss. Come on.3.來,親我一下,來。
4.Hostess:火鸡来了!4.Hostess:Here comes the turkey!4.Hostess:火雞來了!
5.美琪,美琪,让一下。5.Meiqi, Meiqi, excuse me.5.美琪,美琪,讓一下。
6.来来来……来了。6.(The food) is coming…6.來來來……來了。
7.Male guest 1:是谁给我的?7.Male guest 1:Who gave me (this present)?7.Male guest 1:是誰給我的?
8.Female guest:谁送的?8.Female guest:Who did?8.Female guest:誰送的?
9.Male guest 2:这是我送的。9.Male guest 2:It is me (who did it/gave you the present).9.Male guest 2:這是我送的。
  1. Source: 电影《被偷走的那五年》https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ih0RlKQno-8

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Published Online: 2018-04-26
Published in Print: 2018-04-25

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