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完成体和经历体 “过” 之语法教学:以美国常见的三套教材为例

An investigation of perfective and experiential aspect “guo” in pedagogical grammars: Analysis of three commonly-used textbooks in America
Shu-Ling Wu

吴 淑铃,美国南伊利诺大学助理教授,研究方向为第二语言习得、汉语语法及对外汉语教学,主要著作发表于核心期刊 Language Learning, the Modern Language Journal, Foreign Language Annals 等。

Shu-Ling Wu is an Assistant Professor at Southern Illinois University, USA. Her research focuses on second language acquisition, Chinese linguistics, and teaching Chinese as a foreign language. She has published articles in flagship journals such as Language Learning, the Modern Language Journal, and Foreign Language Annals.

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and 马 玉汴

玉汴 马,中国郑州大学国际教育学院副教授,研究方向为汉语国际教育和汉语语言学,担任多套汉语教材丛书主编。

Yubian Ma is an Associate Professor at College of International Education, Zhengzhou University, China. Her research focuses on teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages and Chinese linguistics. She has served as the editor of several series of Chinese language textbooks.

摘要

完成体和经历体 “过” 是汉语语法里用来表示事件内部时间结构的重要工具,两者在语法结构和功能上有许多差异。然而当前的主流教材在初级和中级课本的编写上,多半只着重教授经历体 “过” 的用法,忽视完成体 “过” 的介绍,造成课堂语法教学无法反映语言现实的情况。本文针对两种 “过” 的教学进行了一系列研究,首先讨论两种 “过” 的区别,再综述教学语法的基本原则以及体貌标记的习得研究,然后具体分析三套在美国广受欢迎的汉语教材在教学次序、语法解释及练习活动上对两种 “过” 的处理,最后以样例示范形式提出针对 “过” 的对教材编写及教学活动的建议。

Abstract

Guo (过) as both a perfective and experiential aspect marker is an important grammatical device which indicates the internal temporal structure of an event or situation in Mandarin Chinese. The two types of guo are distinct in their syntactic structure and function, which has been well documented in the field of Chinese linguistics but has not yet been incorporated into the field of teaching Chinese as a second language. Perfective guo often appears with the end-of-sentence particle le (了) and cannot appear with the negative adverb mei (没) or meiyou (没有). In contrast, experiential guo cannot appear with the end-of-sentence particle le and can take the negative adverb mei or meiyou. Moreover, in terms of usage, perfective guo is used to denote completion of an event, which can apply to a time frame in the past, present, or future. When used for a past event, it refers to a more recent past and can appear with the adverb yijing (已经 ‘already’). Experiential guo, by comparison, can only describe a past event that happened in a more distant past and can appear with the adverb cengjing (曾经 ‘once’). In terms of degree of gramaticalization, perfective guo is less gramaticalized, has a lower rate of frequency of use, and can only be used with an activity verb or accomplishment verb that denotes an event or action that lasts for a duration of time and can have an endpoint. Experiential guo is more gramaticalized, has a higher rate of frequency of use, and can be used with a variety of verbs and adjectives. Additionally, perfective guo is different from perfective le (了) in that perfective guo highlights passing the endpoint of an event or action and carries a stronger sense of completion of the process, whereas perfective le regards an event or action with entirety and does not conceptualize it as one with a beginning, middle, and end. Analysis of three sets of commonly-used textbooks in America suggests that current mainstream Chinese textbooks tend to focus on the teaching of experiential guo and overlook perfective guo, resulting in a gap between the actual use of the grammar points in the Chinese-speaking environment and the classroom teaching. Only one of the three sets of textbooks teaches perfective guo and does not provide any accompanying practice activity. As a result, simple sentences with perfective guo such as “Ni chi-guo fan le ma? (你吃过饭了吗? ‘Have you eaten?’)” or “Women chi-guo wufan zai qu (我们吃过午饭再去 ‘Let’s leave after lunch’) can easily confuse leaners because they are only aware of usage of experiential guo. It was also observed that misuse of experiential guo with particle le, a pattern allowed only for perfective guo, was ranked the second highest among learners’ non-target-like production of the aspect marker guo. It is clear that the current practice of focusing on experiential guo and avoiding perfective guo to reduce learners’ confusion between the two types of guo or between perfective guo and perfective le needs a remedy. This study offers sample grammatical explanations and contextualized activities for teaching perfective and experiential guo. It is suggested that the teaching of perfective guo be incorporated into the intermediate or advanced level grammar lessons after students are introduced to the perfective le, end-of-sentence particle le, and experiential guo. It is important to keep the grammatical explanation simple and accessible to learners, focus on the key sentence patterns, and help learners internalize the knowledge and functionally use the patterns through meaningful linguistic tasks that simulate real-life situations. Two activities on perfective guo, throwing a party and planning for a date, are provided as samples.

Funding statement: 本研究受美国南伊利诺大学研究基金赞助,并受益于第十二届世界华语文教学研讨会与会学者的反馈和建议,在此一并致谢。

About the authors

Shu-Ling Wu

吴 淑铃,美国南伊利诺大学助理教授,研究方向为第二语言习得、汉语语法及对外汉语教学,主要著作发表于核心期刊 Language Learning, the Modern Language Journal, Foreign Language Annals 等。

Shu-Ling Wu is an Assistant Professor at Southern Illinois University, USA. Her research focuses on second language acquisition, Chinese linguistics, and teaching Chinese as a foreign language. She has published articles in flagship journals such as Language Learning, the Modern Language Journal, and Foreign Language Annals.

马 玉汴

玉汴 马,中国郑州大学国际教育学院副教授,研究方向为汉语国际教育和汉语语言学,担任多套汉语教材丛书主编。

Yubian Ma is an Associate Professor at College of International Education, Zhengzhou University, China. Her research focuses on teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages and Chinese linguistics. She has served as the editor of several series of Chinese language textbooks.

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Published Online: 2018-04-26
Published in Print: 2018-04-25

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