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汉语并列关系定语统计分析

Statistical analysis of Chinese juxtaposed attributive
肖 奚强 and 高 则云

提要:

并列关系定语是多项定语中特殊的一类,可以是词并列、短语并列以及词和短语混合并列。并列关系定语的各并列项之间可以是无标记的,也可以通过标点、连词、副词、连词副词同现以及多项连接方式共现等方式进行并列。定语标记词 “的” 的隐现与各并列项的性质、并列关系定语的语义等有密切的联系,总体上倾向于使用 “的” ,进行强调时会在每一个并列项后都使用 “的”。并列关系定语的排序原则比较多样,总体使用倾向为:逻辑关系原则>显著性原则>重要性原则>形式原则>约定俗成原则>时间先后原则>熟悉程度原则>对应原则>文化原则>立足点原则、语序自由>多项原则>空间原则。语义重心在后占有一定优势。

Abstract

This paper mainly discusses and studies the juxtaposed attributive from four aspects, the nature of the parallel items, the connection way of the items, the looming rules of the attributive markup “de” and lastly, the arrangement rules of the attributive. We have retrieved 788 examples of juxtaposed attributive clauses from 900,000 words of the corpus of Contemporary Chinese Language to conduct the empirical research based on these 788 examples regarding those four aspects mentioned above.

By analyzing the examples, this paper classifies and analyzes the properties of the juxtaposed attributive and finds that the juxtaposition of the attributive is exceedingly complicated. In addition to the common juxtaposition between words and words, the juxtaposition of phrases and phrases also accounts for a certain proportion. Additionally, the juxtaposition between words and words does not always belong to the same kind of structural property. We also found some examples juxtaposed by different kinds of structural elements. In regards to the form and semantics, we have studied the juxtaposition of different parts of words and phrases, taking into account juxtaposition in all possible situations, and have analyzed their parallel basis and reasons. According to the analysis, we conclude that the usage frequency of juxtaposed attributive is as follows: juxtaposed by similar kind of words >juxtaposed by similar kind of phrases >juxtaposed by words and phrases >juxtaposed by different kind of phrases >juxtaposed by different kind of words.

Through the study of the corpus, we conclude the connection methods between the juxtaposed attributives and put forward that the conjunctions should include “huo” conjunctions as the connection mode on the basis of the original connection methods, and we analyze the connection modes from both the form and the semantics. We get the usage tendency of the connection ways of the attributive and parallel items: punctuation > no mark > “he” conjunctions > “er” conjunctions > adverbs > multiple ways > conjunctions and adverbs connected > “huo” conjunctions. We also analyze usage from the semantic proximity, syntax, syllable and other aspects.

Based on the detailed analysis of the corpus, taking into account the looming situation of “e” after the individual attributive, we analyze the looming of the attributive-labeled word “de”, and get the situations where the juxtaposed attributive tends not to add “de”, which includes: the quantitative phrase or the ordinal number juxtaposed to express the restriction relations; the combination of each juxtaposed term when the central language in a compound attribute constitutes the name or title of one or a class of things; when the central language is followed by the word “de”; when the central language is an ancient Chinese word like “shi” or “zhe” and so on. The situations where tends to add “de” after the juxtaposed attributives are: the central language is a verb; the existence of some logical relationships among the items, such as choice, progression, causality, transition and so on; when one-syllable attributive and the multiple-syllable attributive juxtaposed; the juxtaposed attributives are descriptive attributives, etc. four kinds. At the same time, we tend to use the “… de … de” when the semantic closeness between the attributives is not high. According to the number of cases of the looming of “de” after the juxtaposed attributives, we come to the conclusion that the sign word “de” appears after the juxtaposed attributives is the most common expression, which holds the absolute superiority.

Liao Qiuzhong (1992) and Gao Qin (2004) researched the arrangement of parallel structure. Based on the analysis of our corpus, this paper sums up 13 principles which are suitable for the arrangement of the juxtaposed attributives, in which the principle of logical relations, the principle of prominence and the principle of significance are reanalyzed. It also puts forward that the principle of convention should be separated from the principle of time. At the same time, we found some more conventional, not affected by the above ranking principle of the flexible relationship attributives, including overlapping with words. According to the data analysis, we derive the usage tendency among these sort principles: the principle of logical relations > the principle of prominence > the principle of significance > the principle of form > the principle of convention > the principle of chronology > the principle of familiarity > the principle of correspondence > cultural principles > standpoints, disorders > multiple principles > spatial principles. In the use of these principles, most of them have more obvious inclination of semantic focus, according to our analysis, if the semantic emphasis points to the last part of the sentence, it usually lays with some advantages.

Funding statement: 基金项目: 本文受国家社会科学基金项目 “韩国留学生汉语篇章衔接手段习得研究” (项目编号:16BYY102)资助。

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Published Online: 2018-09-29
Published in Print: 2018-10-09

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