The importance of nutrition factors such as calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for the integrity of the skeleton is well known. Moreover, bone health is positively influenced by certain elements (e.g., zinc, copper, fluorine, manganese, magnesium, iron and boron). Deficiency of these elements slows down the increase of bone mass in childhood and/or in adolescence and accelerates bone loss after menopause or in old age. Deterioration of bone quality increases the risk of fractures. Monitoring of homeostasis of the trace elements together with the measurement of bone density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism should be used to identify and treat patients at risk of non-traumatic fractures. Factors determining the effectivity of supplementation include dose, duration of treatment, serum concentrations, as well as interactions among individual elements. Here, we review the effect of the most important trace elements on the skeleton and evaluate their clinical importance.
About the authors
Prof. Ivana Žofková, MD, PhD, DSc. is involved in the study of sample enlargement, postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment and in results analysis. Medicine, Charles University, Prague, graduated in 1966. Postgradual experiences and main fields of interest: PhD Thesis – Humoral factors in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension, Charles University, Prague, 1975. Doctor of Science (DSc.)– The influence of calcium and calciotropic drugs on humoral regulations, Charles University, Prague, 1992. Associate Professor of Internal Medicine – The pathogenesis of osteoporosis, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 1996. Professor of Internal Medicine – Sex steroids and the skeleton, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 2003. Research into genetics of osteoporosis, 2003 until now. Clinical praxis – Department of Internal Medicine, Charles University Hospitals in Pilsen and in Prague, Department of Clinical Endocrinology in the Institute of Endocrinology.
Petra Nemcikova, MD, graduated from Charles University, Prague in 2010. After graduation she started to work in the District Hospital of Internal Medicine, Jindrichuv Hradec. Now she is a PhD student of Professor Zofkova, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague. Her PhD thesis is: Trace elements and calcium-phosphate metabolism.
Petr Matucha, MSc. Highest achieved education: Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, 1986–91, analytical chemistry. Clinical, educational and professional activity: 1992–1997 in Institute of Endocrinology Prague; 1996–97 as biochemist in Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, General Faculty Hospital Prague; 1997 to present as scientist in the Institute of Endocrinology Prague, Department of Clinical Immunoendocrinology.
This work was supported by the project (Ministry of Health, Czech Republic) for conceptual development of research organization 00023761 (Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic).
Conflict of interest statement
Authors’ conflict of interest disclosure: The authors stated that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. Research support played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
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