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Relationship between matrix metalloproteinase-9 and oxidative stress in drug-free male schizophrenia: a case control study

Sivasankar Devanarayanan, Hanumanthappa Nandeesha, Shivanand Kattimani and Siddharth Sarkar


Background: Deregulation of synaptic plasticity and oxidative stress are reported to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an extracellular protease involved in regulation of synaptic plasticity. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a marker of lipid peroxidation which is elevated in schizophrenia. Earlier studies have reported polymorphism of MMP-9 and its association with schizophrenia. The present study was designed to assess the serum levels of MMP-9, MDA and total antioxidant status (TAS) and their association in schizophrenia.

Methods: A total of 40 cases and 40 controls were included in the study. Serum MMP-9, MDA and TAS were estimated in all the subjects. Disease severity was assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).

Results: MMP-9 and MDA were significantly increased and TAS were significantly reduced in schizophrenia cases compared to controls. MMP-9 was positively correlated with MDA (r=0.353, p=0.025) and negatively correlated with TAS (r=−0.461, p=0.003). TAS was significantly correlated with total (r=0.322, p=0.043) and negative symptom scores (r=0.336, p=0.034). Higher MMP-9 levels were associated with previous exposure to antipsychotics (p=0.032).

Conclusions: MMP-9 and oxidative stress were increased and correlate well with each other in schizophrenia cases. Though total oxidant status showed positive association with disease severity, MMP-9 and MDA were not associated with the severity of the disease.

Corresponding author: Hanumanthappa Nandeesha, Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, JIPMER, Puducherry, India, Phone: +91 9443434438, Fax: +91 0413 2272067, E-mail:


This work was supported by a grant from JIPMER intramural fund sanctioned to the corresponding author.

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2015-3-5
Accepted: 2015-7-6
Published Online: 2015-8-11
Published in Print: 2016-3-1

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