Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
1. Michaelson MD, Cotter SE, Gargollo PC, Zietman AL, Dahl DM, Smith MR. Management of complications of prostate cancer treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2008;58:196–213. Search in Google Scholar
2. Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Joniau S, van der Kwast T, et al. EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part II: treatment of advanced, relapsing, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2014;65:467–79. Search in Google Scholar
3. Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Joniau S, van der Kwast T, et al. EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013. Eur Urol 2014;65:124–37. Search in Google Scholar
4. Bratt O, Lilja H. Serum markers in prostate cancer detection. Curr Opin Urol 2015;25:59–64. Search in Google Scholar
5. McDunn JE, Li Z, Adam KP, Neri BP, Wolfert RL, Milburn MV, et al. Metabolomic signatures of aggressive prostate cancer. Prostate 2013;73:1547–60. Search in Google Scholar
6. Sridharan S, Macias V, Tangella K, Kajdacsy-Balla A, Popescu G. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging. Sci Rep 2015;5:9976. Search in Google Scholar
7. Stephan C, Ralla B, Jung K. Prostate-specific antigen and other serum and urine markers in prostate cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 2014;1846:99–112. Search in Google Scholar
8. Elliker KR, Sommerville BA, Broom DM, Neal DE, Armstrong S, Williams HC. Key considerations for the experimental training and evaluation of cancer odour detection dogs: lessons learnt from a double-blind, controlled trial of prostate cancer detection. BMC Urol 2014;14:22. Search in Google Scholar
9. Leitch O, Anderson A, Kirkbride KP, Lennard C. Biological organisms as volatile compound detectors: a review. Forensic Sci Int 2013;232:92–103. Search in Google Scholar
10. Concha A, Mills DS, Feugier A, Zulch H, Guest C, Harris R, et al. Using sniffing behavior to differentiate true negative from false negative responses in trained scent-detection dogs. Chem Senses 2014;39:749–54. Search in Google Scholar
11. Phillips R. Prostate cancer: eNose – man’s new best friend? Nat Rev Urol 2014;11:187. Search in Google Scholar
12. Persaud K, Dodd G. Analysis of discrimination mechanisms in the mammalian olfactory system using a model nose. Nature 1982;299:352–5. Search in Google Scholar
13. Lippi G, Cervellin G. Canine olfactory detection of cancer versus laboratory testing: myth or opportunity? Clin Chem Lab Med 2012;50:435–9. Search in Google Scholar
14. Taverna G, Tidu L, Grizzi F, Torri V, Mandressi A, Sardella P, et al. Olfactory system of highly trained dogs detects prostate cancer in urine samples. J Urol 2015;193:1382–7. Search in Google Scholar
15. Gordon RT, Schatz CB, Myers LJ, Kosty M, Gonczy C, Kroener J, et al. The use of canines in the detection of human cancers. J Altern Complement Med 2008;14:61–7. Search in Google Scholar
16. Cornu JN, Cancel-Tassin G, Ondet V, Girardet C, Cussenot O. Olfactory detection of prostate cancer by dogs sniffing urine: a step forward in early diagnosis. Eur Urol 2011;59: 197–201. Search in Google Scholar
17. Lughezzani G, Lazzeri M, Buffi NM, Abrate A, Mistretta FA, Hurle R, et al. Preoperative prostate health index is an independent predictor of early biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: results from a prospective single-center study. Urol Oncol 2015. PubMed PMID: 26055430. Search in Google Scholar
18. Bahnson RR. Detection of prostate cancer in urine by dogs. J Urol 2015;193:1083. Search in Google Scholar
©2016 by De Gruyter