Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
3. Brand F, Martin F, Philipp S, Rößler J, Hansen B, Anderer U. Difference in fluorescence pattern of cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in cultivated human cells dependent on the applied fixation procedure. Cell Prolif 2005;38:205.Search in Google Scholar
4. Song L, Hennink EJ, Young IT, Tanke HJ. Photobleaching kinetics of fluorescein in quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Biophys J 1995;68:2588–600.10.1016/S0006-3495(95)80442-XSearch in Google Scholar
5. Pham BN, Albarede S, Guyard A, Burg E, Maisonneuve P. Impact of external quality assessment on antinuclear antibody detection performance. Lupus 2005;14:113–9.10.1191/0961203305lu2069oaSearch in Google Scholar
6. Bizzaro N, Tozzoli R, Tonutti E, Piazza A, Manoni F, Ghirardello A, et al. Variability between methods to determine ANA, antidsDNA and anti-ENA autoantibodies: a collaborative study with the biomedical industry. J Immunol Methods 1998;219:99–107.10.1016/S0022-1759(98)00140-9Search in Google Scholar
8. Rigon A, Infantino M, Merone M, Iannello G, Tincani A, Cavazzana I, et al. The inter-observer reading variability in anti-nuclear antibodies indirect (ANA) immunofluorescence test: a multicenter evaluation and a review of the literature. Autoimmun Rev 2017;16:1224–9.10.1016/j.autrev.2017.10.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed
9. Rigon A, Buzzulini F, Soda P, Onofri L, Arcarese L, Iannello G, et al. Novel opportunities in automated classification of antinuclear antibodies on HEp-2 cells. Autoimmun Rev 2011;10:647–52.10.1016/j.autrev.2011.04.022Search in Google Scholar PubMed
10. Rigon A, Soda P, Zennaro D, Iannello G, Afeltra A. Indirect immunofluorescence in autoimmune diseases: assessment of digital images for diagnostic purpose. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2007;72:472–7.10.1002/cyto.b.20356Search in Google Scholar PubMed
11. Merone M, Sansone C, Soda P. A computer-aided diagnosis system for HEp-2 fluorescence intensity classification. Artif Intell Med 2019;97:71–8.10.1016/j.artmed.2018.11.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed
12. Infantino M, Meacci F, Grossi V, Manfredi M, Benucci M, Merone M, et al. The burden of the variability introduced by the HEp-2 assay kit and the CAD system in ANA indirect immunofluorescence test. Immunol Res 2017;65:345–54.10.1007/s12026-016-8845-3Search in Google Scholar PubMed
©2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston