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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 10, 2022

Biological variation and reference change value as decision criteria in clinical use of tumor biomarkers. Are they really useful?

  • Ruggero Dittadi ORCID logo EMAIL logo , Aline S.C. Fabricio ORCID logo and Massimo Gion ORCID logo

Corresponding author: Ruggero Dittadi, Laboratory Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Pathology, Ospedale dell’Angelo, Azienda ULSS 3 Serenissima, Mestre, Via Paccagnella 11, 30174, Venice, Italy; and Regional Center for Biomarkers, Department of Clinical Pathology, Azienda ULSS 3 Serenissima, Venice, Italy, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Informed consent: Not applicable.

  5. Ethical approval: Not applicable.


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Received: 2022-01-18
Accepted: 2022-02-23
Published Online: 2022-03-10
Published in Print: 2022-05-25

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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