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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 28, 2023

Early changes in S100B maternal blood levels can predict fetal intrauterine growth restriction

  • Laura Abella , Ebe D’Adamo , Mariachiara Strozzi , Valentina Botondi , Ernesto Abella , Maurizio Cassinari , Laura Mazzucco , Antonio Maconi , Michela Testa , Cristian Zanelli , Roberta Patacchiola , Michela Librandi , Jacopo Osmelli , Maura Carabotta , Francesco Chiarelli and Diego Gazzolo EMAIL logo



Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) represents one of the main causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Nowadays, IUGR early diagnosis is mandatory in order to limit the occurrence of multiorgan failure, especially the brain. Therefore, we investigated whether longitudinal S100B assessment in maternal blood could be a trustable predictor of IUGR.


We conducted a prospective study in 480 pregnancies (IUGR: n=40; small for gestational age, SGA: n=40; controls: n=400) in whom S100B was measured at three predetermined monitoring time-points (T1: 8–18 GA; T2: 19–23 GA; T3: 24–28 GA).


Lower S100B in IUGR fetuses than SGA and controls (p<0.05, for all) at T1–T3. Receiver operating characteristic curve showed that S100B at T1 was the best predictor of IUGR (sensitivity: 100 %; specificity: 81.4 %) than T2, T3.


The early lower S100B concentration in pregnant women lately complicated by IUGR support the notion that non-invasive early IUGR diagnosis and monitoring is becoming feasible. Results open the way to further studies aimed at diagnosing and monitoring fetal/maternal diseases at earliest time.

Corresponding author: Prof. Diego Gazzolo, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, G. d’Annunzio University, 65100 Chieti, Italy, Phone: +39 0871 358219, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: This work is part of the I.O. PhD International Program under the auspices of the Italian Society of Neonatology and was partially supported by grants to DG from “I Colori della Vita Foundation” 3/2020, and “L’Insieme” 4/2019 Italy. We thank Diasorin, Saluggia, Italy, for supporting analysis kits.

  2. Author contributions: L.A., E.D., M.S., V.B., E.A., M.C., L.M., A.M., M.T., C.Z., R.P., M.L., J.O., M.C. and F.C. contributed to the conceptualization, investigation and writing of the original draft. D.G. contributed to the project administration, conceptualization, investigation, supervision and writing—review and editing. All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

  3. Competing interests: The funding organizations played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

  4. Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.

  5. Ethical approval: The study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Ethics Committee of ASO SS Antonio, Biagio and C. Arrigo, Alessandria, Italy (CoMBINeASO.Neonat17.01).


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Received: 2023-03-21
Accepted: 2023-06-15
Published Online: 2023-06-28
Published in Print: 2023-11-27

© 2023 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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