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BY-NC-ND 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter September 22, 2018

Heart rhythm model for the simulation of electric fields in transesophageal atrial pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy

  • Kerem Göküs EMAIL logo , Matthias Heinke and Johannes Hörth


Electric field of biventricular (BV) pacing, left ventricular (LV) electrode position and electrical interventricular desynchronization are important parameters for successful cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure, sinus rhythm and reduced LV ejection fraction. The aim of the study was to evaluate electric pacing field of transesophageal left atrial (LA) pacing and BV pacing with 3D heart rhythm simulation. Bipolar right atrial (RA), right ventricular (RV), LV electrodes and multipolar hemispherical esophageal LA electrodes were modeled with CST (Computer Simulation Technology, Darmstadt). Electric pacing field were simulated with bipolar RA and RV pacing with Solid S (Biotronik) electrode, bipolar LV pacing with Attain 4194 (Medtronic) electrode and bipolar LA pacing with TO8 (Osypka) esophageal electrode. 3D heart rhythm model with esophagus allowed electric pacing field simulation of 4-chamber pacing with bipolar intracardiac RA, RV, LV pacing and bipolar transesophageal LA pacing. The pacing amplitudes were 3V RA pacing amplitude, 50V LA pacing amplitude, 1.5V RV pacing amplitude and 3V LV pacing amplitude with 0.5ms pacing pulse duration. The atrioventricular delay between RA pacing and BV pacing was 140ms atrioventricular pacing delay and simultaneous RV and LV pacing. Electric pacing fields were simulated during the different pacing modes AAI, VVI, DDD and DDD0V. The intracardiac far-field pacing potentials were evaluated with intracardiac electrodes and a distance of 1mm from the electrodes with RA electrode 1.104V, RV electrode 0.703V and LV electrode 1.32V. The transesophageal far-field pacing potential was evaluated with transesophageal electrode and a distance of 10mm from the elelctrode with LA electrode 6.076V. Heart rhythm model simulation with esophagus allows evaluation of electric pacing fields in AAI, VVI, DDD, DDD0V and DDD0D pacing modes. Electric pacing field of RA, RV and LV pacing in combination with LA pacing may additional useful pacing mode in CRT non-responders.

Published Online: 2018-09-22
Published in Print: 2018-09-01

© 2018 the author(s), published by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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