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BY-NC-ND 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter September 22, 2018

Pacing electrode modeling and simulation of cardiac contractility modulation

  • Tom Roller EMAIL logo , Matthias Heinke and Johannes Hörth


Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) is a device-based therapy for the treatment of systolic left ventricular chronic heart failure. Unlike other devicebased therapies for heart failure, CCM delivers nonexcitatory pacing signals to the myocardium. This leads to an extension of the action potential and to an improved contractility of the heart. The modeling and simulation was done with the electromagnetic simulation software CST. Three CCM electrodes were inserted into the Offenburg heart rhythm model and subsequently simulated the electric field propagation in CCM therapy. In addition, simulations of CCM have been performed with electrodes from other device-based therapies, such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and implantable cardioverter./.defibrillator (ICD) therapy. At the same distance to the simulation electrode, the electric field is slightly stronger in CCM therapy than in CCM therapy with additionally implanted CRT or ICD electrodes. In addition, there is a change in the electric field propagation at the electrodes of the CRT and the shock electrode of the ICD. By simulating several different therapy procedures on the heart, it is possible to check how they affect their behavior during normal operation. CCM heart rhythm model simulation allows the evaluation the individual electrical pacing and sensing field during CCM.

Published Online: 2018-09-22
Published in Print: 2018-09-01

© 2018 the author(s), published by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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