We propose a one-step person detector for topview omnidirectional indoor scenes based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). While state of the art person detectors reach competitive results on perspective images, missing CNN architectures as well as training data that follows the distortion of omnidirectional images makes current approaches not applicable to our data. The method predicts bounding boxes of multiple persons directly in omnidirectional images without perspective transformation, which reduces overhead of pre- and post-processing and enables realtime performance. The basic idea is to utilize transfer learning to fine-tune CNNs trained on perspective images with data augmentation techniques for detection in omnidirectional images. We fine-tune two variants of Single Shot MultiBox detectors (SSDs). The first one uses Mobilenet v1 FPN as feature extractor (moSSD). The second one uses ResNet50 v1 FPN (resSSD). Both models are pre-trained on Microsoft Common Objects in Context (COCO) dataset. We fine-tune both models on PASCAL VOC07 and VOC12 datasets, specifically on class person. Random 90-degree rotation and random vertical flipping are used for data augmentation in addition to the methods proposed by original SSD. We reach an average precision (AP) of 67.3%with moSSD and 74.9%with resSSD on the evaluation dataset. To enhance the fine-tuning process, we add a subset of HDA Person dataset and a subset of PIROPO database and reduce the number of perspective images to PASCAL VOC07. The AP rises to 83.2% for moSSD and 86.3% for resSSD, respectively. The average inference speed is 28 ms per image for moSSD and 38 ms per image for resSSD using Nvidia Quadro P6000. Our method is applicable to other CNN-based object detectors and can potentially generalize for detecting other objects in omnidirectional images.
© 2019 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Public License.