INTRODUCTION: A torque-rotation model of the bone-screwing process has been proposed. Identification of model parameters using recorded data could potentially be used to determine the material properties of bone. These properties can then be used to recommend tightening torques to avoid over or under-tightening of bone screws. This paper improves an existing model to formulate it in terms of material properties and remove some assumptions. METHOD: The modelling methodology considers a critical torque, which is required to overcome friction and advance the screw into the bone. Below this torque the screw may rotate with elastic deformation of the bone tissue, and above this the screw moves relative to the bone, and the speed is governed by a speed-torque model of the operator’s hand. The model is formulated in terms of elastic modulus, ultimite tensile strength, and frictional coefficient of the bone and the geometry of the screw and hole. RESULTS: The model output shows the speed decreasing and torque increasing as the screw advances into the bone, due to increasing resistance. The general shape of the torque and speed follow the input effort. Compared with the existing model, this model removes the assumption of viscous friction, models the increase in friction as the screw advances into the bone, and is directly in terms of the bone material properties. CONCLUSION: The model presented makes significant improvements on the existing model. However it is intended for use in parameter identification, which was not evaluated here. Further simulation and experimental validation is required to establish the accuracy and fitness of this model for identifying bone material properties.
© 2020 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston
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